CONSTRUCTION OF A JUICE EXTRACTOR MACHINE

(Chemical Engineering)

CONSTRUCTION OF A JUICE EXTRACTOR MACHINE

ABSTRACT

        This project (construction of a simple size reduction machine) it was constructed locally with the use of local materials and tools in I. M. T. mechanical engineering workshop. The various parts of the equipment were constructed separately using mild steel before finally coupled. 

        During  the construction, the conveyors and its housing where first constructed. It consists of a shaft with helical rod wound round it. The paper was measured out and welded from a mild steel sheet of length of 320mm by 60mm with a thickness of 1 mm and it has the following dimension:

        Height of hopper- 160mm

        Upper part of the hopper – 140mm diameter

        Lower part of the hopper – 100mm diameter

The conveyor was fixed into its housing and welded to the shaft. The grinding chamber was 0welded separately and coupled to the grinding discs. The pressure screw fabricated was welded to the hopper. The U channel was joined to the base stand by welding and existing setup the bearing pulley and the manual handle were all coupled.

        It was filled to smoothen the sharp edge and finally painted for corrosion resistance.

        After the construction work test run was carried out using the grains of wet maize and dried maize. The result shows a greater efficiency in using wet maize.

        Also the high level of noise observed during the test was reduced by fabricating the essential parts with grease.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE 

1.0    INTRODUCTION                                 

1.1        BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                       

1.2        STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                      

1.3        PURPOSE/AIM/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY     

1.4        SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY        

1.5        METHOD OF RESEARCH                                       

1.6        SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                      

CHAPTER TWO

2.0    LITERATURE REVIEW                                  

2.1    HISTORY OF CONSTRUCTION AND USES OF SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT/MACHINE                

2.2    THEORY OF OPERATION OF SIZE REDUCTION

2.3    FACTOR THAT AFFECT T HE EFFICIENCY OF SIZE REDUCTION MACHINE                                     

2.4    TYPES OF SIZE REDUCTION EQUIPMENT        

2.5    CRUSHES                                                 

2.6    APPLICATION OF REDUCTION EQUIPMENT LIKE FRUIT JUICE CRUSHER/EXTRACTOR                

2.6    FACTORS AFFECTING JUICE CRUSHING EXTRACTOR/MACHINE                                  

CHAPTER THREE

3.0    CONSTRUCTION METHODOLOGY                   

3.1    SELECTION OF MATERIAL FOR CONSTRUCTION

3.2    CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE                                  

3.21  MAKING OUT OPERATORS                              

3.22  EQUIPMENT USED FOR MAKING OUT                

3.3    CUTTING OPERATORS                                 

3.4    PRESS SIZE REQUIREMENT FOR CUTTING      

3.5    PUNCHING/DRILLING OPERATION                 

3.6    WELDING JOINING OPERATION                    

3.7    ARC WELDING                                                    

3.72  ELECTRODES USED IN WELDING                   

3.73  SPECIFICATION OF WELDING ELECTRODES    

3.8    SEQUENCE OF OPERATION                          

3.81  THE  ROTATING SHAFT AND CONVEYOR HOUSING

3.82  HOPPER                                                            

3.83  SQUEEZE CHAMBER                                            

3.84  PLATE GAP AND ADJUSTMENT SCREW           

3.85  STANDING                                                 

3.86  DRIVEN PULLEY/PRIME MOVER                     

3.86  SURFACE FINISHING AND COATING              

3.87  SAFETY OF THE OPERATION                         

3.91  PRECAUTIONS                                                   

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0    TESTING OF JUICE EXTRACTOR                    

4.1    PERFORMANCE EVALUATION                                

4.2    RESULTS                                                           

          CHAPTER FIVE 

5.1    DISCUSSION                                                     

5.2    CONCLUSION                                                     

5.3    RECOMMENDATION                                            

        REFERENCES

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0          INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

        Fruit have been cultivated for the last 2000 years in Southern China and South-East Asia, one variety the citron and south-east was carried to the middle east sometime between 400 and 600 BC. Arab traders transported different kinds of fruit like orange to eastern Africa and the Middle East sometime between 100 and 700 AD and during the Arab occupation of Spain, Citrus fruits first arrived in southern Europe from there they were carried to the new world by explores where they spread to fluoride and Brazil (By the sixteenth century by 1800 citrus fruits achieved world wide distribution). In the 1890s, the demand for them greatly increased because physicians discovered that drinking the juice of organs or other citrus fruit could prevent survey, A vitamin deficiency disease.

        The popularity of orange juice dramatically increased again with the development of the commercial orange juice industry in the late 1920. In its early day, the juice industry primary relied on salvased fruit, which was unstable for regular consumption because it was badly colored in 1944 scientist found a way to concentrate fruit juice in a vacuum and freeze it with destroying the flavour or vitamin content.

        After World War II most Americans stopped squeezing their own juice and concentrated because the predominant for, with the increase in home refrigeration, frozen concentrate became even more popular. In 1985 when reconstituted and NFC juice first out sold the frozen type. Today commercial aseptic packaging allow RTD juice to be marketed without refrigerated storage the current world wide market for orange juice is more than and $2.5 billion with the biggest area being the biggest in United States (USA) followed by Canada, Western Europe and Japan.   

 

1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

        Fruit Juice over the year, has been successfully used in the production and manufacturing of the edible refined juice using machine which were fabricated and constructed to large scale production, industrialization and large capital requirement.

        This make the extraction of fruit juice a fantasy to local and small-scale industrial establishment. Furthermore, the major ways by which the suckle in which fruit juice has been enjoyed over the years has been by the employment of teeth in biting off the mind and chewing up the internal tissue. When this is achieved, the juice would then be extracted and sucked in the mouth. The grossness of this procedure trends to put the human teeth in duress, imagine if it to be consumed in large quantity, if also led to low scale production of the fruit by the farmers.

        At present, the construction of the coltage industry for fruit juice extractor has been facilitated to cushion these problem so far.

 

1.3    PURPOSE/AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

        Because of the great demand for juice produce a higher quantity and grade today brought about the need for this project.

        The objectives of this project are;

i.         To reduce the bulkiness of the fruits in terms of size

ii.        To ease transportation in terms in terms of size maximum quality of juice from the produce or fruit used.

iii.      Some fruit does not last for along time after harvesting then there is need to process it into juice fruit to last for a period of time, like orange fruit which are too astringent for eating without being processes maybe used for chutney wine and pickles.

1.5    METHOD OF RESEARCH

        Experimental research this involved the research carried out on the construction of fruit juice extractor machine in the laboratory by using appropriate material for the construction like the types of material used like mid steel.

        Information gotten from the library like the uses of internet services and discussion with academic supervisor and my fellow classmate.                

1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

        The effective construction of orange and pineapple juice extractor etc could go along way in solving the problem associated with the wastage and out if stock of many fruit in the market. Due to poor preservation technique its advantage over other preservation techniques its advantage over other form of juice extractors are food processing equipment include the portability and affordability.

        The machine is in popular demand and it can be disposed easily- finally the importance in which this machine would be  on the society are numerous in the sense that it will aid in reducing post harvesting losses.

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