PRODUCTION OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS (LAUNDRY SOAP) IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

(Chemistry)

PRODUCTION OF SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS

(LAUNDRY SOAP) IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY

ABSTRACT

            In this project work, the researcher analysed the properties of surface-active agents (laundry soap) to be an excellent cleanser because of its ability to remove stains from surfaces.

            The researcher work was based mainly on internet print out, textbooks and experimentation.

            Experiment was carried out using some raw materials to produce this surface-active agent (laundry soap) of which the result formed the basis of this study and determined the conclusion, which in turn informed the recommendations.

TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1         Background to the study

1.2         Statement of problems

1.3         Purpose of the study

1.4         Significance of the study

1.5         Scope of the study

1.6         Research hypothesis

1.7         Limitations to the study

1.8         Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO     

Literature Review

2.1         The history of soap production

2.2         How does soap clean

2.3         The chemistry of soap production

2.4         Detergency

2.5         Effect of detergent and soap on hard water

2.6         Mechanism of detergency

2.7         Industrial manufacture of soap

2.8         Manufacture of detergents

2.9         Industrial and domestic use of soaps and detergents

CHAPTER THREE            

Experimental procedure

3.1         Materials needed for laundry soap

3.2         Measurements and concentrations of needed materials for laundry soap production

3.3         Equipments needed

3.4         Experimental method of laundry soap production

3.5         Testing of the soap.

CHAPTER FOUR

Discussion of results

4.1         General precaution

4.2         Nature of raw materials

4.3         The hardening process

4.4         Possibilities of large scales production

CHAPTER FIVE     

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1         Summary

5.2         Conclusion

5.3         Recommendations

5.4         Suggestions for further research

REFERENCES       

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Soap is a universal surface-active agent and is use in many household and industries. There are many types of soap based on the method of production and the materials used. Soap can be prepared in a small scale or large scale.  The small-scale process can be done either at home or laboratory following the scientific and technical process. The making of soap can be quite interesting if done with knowledge and adequate skills, which a student in a higher institution of learning should be able to accomplish.

Early attempts at soap production relied on ash production by burning various vegetable materials, as a makeshift source of alkali. For example, in Spain, the plant salsola was burned to produce an alkaline ash called barilla, this used in conjunction with locally available olive oil, offered a good quality soap which by salting-out or “graining” boiled liquor with brine allowed the soap to float to the surface leaving lye, vegetable colouring and impurities to settle out. This produced what was probably the first white hard soap. 

1.2         STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The following statements of problems are hereby formulated to assist in this research work of surface-active agents production.

1.            What raw materials are required to produce high quality laundry soap?

2.            What are the steps to follow in producing the laundry soap

3.            How can the soap produced be tested

4.            How durable is the soap produced. 

1.3         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this research work is to produce high quality laundry soap that can be used at home by family members. The soap produce should have no unpleasant effect on skin; instead it should have a pleasant odour and scent with suiting cosmetic effect on the skin when used for washing. Soap produce under laboratory condition with the masses of the materials adequately ascertained.

1.4         SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The research work is significant for the following reasons:

1.            It will help to inculcate laboratory skills and techniques on the researcher, which can later help in the real work.

2.            Since chemistry is an experimental discipline, it means the science students should carryout research based on laboratory method.

1.5         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work is limited to laboratory scale process, which is far better than local method. However, it does not make use of industrial scale since it is not an industrial research.

1.6         RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis were formulated to assist the production of laundry soap:

1.            The raw materials required to produce high quality laundry soap are palm kernel oil, (P. K. oil), caustic soda, Colourant/Deystuff, perfumes and sodium silicate.

2.            The steps to follow in the production of high quality laundry soap or any other surface active agents is to ensure accurate measurement of the raw materials and that non of the steps should be ignored.

3.            The soap produced can be tested by shaking it in water to check if it lathers. Equally, it can be tested by using it to wash the hands to ensure that it does not cause irritation to the skin when been used for washing.

4.            The soap produced can last over duration of three months.  

1.7         DEFINITION OF TERMS

DETERGENTS: These are soap-like emulsifier that contains a sulfonate-SO3-, sufate SO3-, or phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group-used for removing soil from clothes, dishes and other materials.

EMULSIFYING AGENT/EMULSIFIER: This is a substance that coats the particles of a dispersed phase and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles.

HARD WATER: A water containing Fe3+ Iron (III) ion, magnesium ions (Mg2+) which forms precipitate with soap.

SOAP: This is an excellent cleanser that can suspend oil and dirt in such a way that it can be carried away with water. It can equally be defined as a universal surface active agent that removes dirt’s from surfaces like skin, clothes etc. which is used in many household and industries.

SURFACE SURFACTANT/SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENT: This is a substance which when present at a low concentration in a system has the property of adsorbing onto the surfaces or interface of the system, thereby altering the surface or interfacial free energies of the surfaces (or interfaces) e.g. soap, detergents, motor oils etc.

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