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THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN BETWEEN AGES ONE TO FIFTEEN (1-15) YEARS: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

(Chemistry)

THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION AMONG CHILDREN BETWEEN AGES ONE TO FIFTEEN (1-15) YEARS: A CASE STUDY OF OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

            Based on the fact that there has been a high rate of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State, the study determine the causes and effect of the condition child under age fifteen. In this study, the following problems were investigated.

1.            The causes of poor nutrition in the area

2.            The effect of poor nutrition on children who are undernourished.

3.            The relationship between pre-natal nutrition and post natal nutrition.

4.            Children suffering setback in their academic pursuit.

The methodology and instrument for the study involves the use of two types of questionnaire which were randomly administer to 100% and 70 teachers in the five villages used. Result gotten from the analysis of the data collected with the questionnaires are matching with the interview of medical personnel in the locality on the effect of poor nutrition in the areas, showed that poor nutrition reduce children intellectual capability, interest in environment and motor development. Based on these findings the followings recommendations were made.

1.            Primary health centers should be established in all he villages so as to enable the women to have easy access to anti-natal care during pregnancy.

2.            The local government should integrated child care and psychological interviews in all wards of the local government.

3.            School should have nutritional supplement so that poor nourished children can be supplemented to improve their academic pursuit.

Parents should endeavor to undertake education so as to enable them, known the ways of improving their children nutritional values. 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One

Introduction

1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of the study

1.3       Purpose of the study

1.4       Research question

1.5       Significance of the study

1.6       Scope of the study

1.7       Limitations of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

Chapter Two          

Literature Review

2.1         Causes of poor nutrition

2.2         Famine

2.3         Poverty

2.4         Over population

2.5         Social economic status of parents

2.6         Common forms of poor nutrition

2.7         Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)

2.8         Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM)

2.9         Pre-natal and post natal nutrition

2.10      Pre-natal nutrition

2.11      Post natal nutrition

2.12      Academic performance of poor nourished children

Chapter Three        

Research methodology

3.1         Research design

3.2         Description of study

3.3         Sampling procedure

3.4         Research instrument

3.5         Administration of the instrument

3.6         Data analysis

Chapter Four

Analysis of data

Chapter Five           

Summary, recommendations and conclusion

5.1         Summary

5.2         Recommendations

5.3         Conclusion

References 

Questionnaires

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In developing countries, millions of children suffer from poor nutrition. There is now a large and increasing evidence to indicate that poor nutrition affects children’s cognitive motor and behaviour development both pre and post natal. The situation is further complicated in that children who suffer from poor nutrition usually come from poor socio-cultural environment, and suffers from myriad of deprivation and disadvantages that could themselves be detrimental to intellectual and behavioral development. It is upon this fact, that the researcher found it necessary to be involved in such an important part of the child’s development. No one is in doubt that the rate at which children under the ages of fifteen (15) years suffer is of course an issue of national urgency.

As at 2006, poor nutrition continues to be a world wide problems. According to the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations “850 millions people worldwide were undernourished in 1999 to 2005, the most recent years for which figures was available”, and the number of malnourished people has recently been increasing (FAO, 2007). In revaluating the effect of poor nutrition on a child’s development, the researcher traditionally focus on motor and cognitive development. However, it is critical to evaluate social and emotional development as well, because these factors may be equally if to important to an individuals success in life.

1.2         STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

The purpose of this research work is to find out the effect of poor nutrition on children less than fifteen (15) years of age in Oredo local government area of Edo State. Over the years the problems of the study therefore come in the form:

1.            What are the causes of poor nutrition in the area?

2.            Is there any effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished?   

3.            Is there any relationship between pre-natal and post-natal nutrition.

4.            Are children suffering from poor nutrition, suffers set back in their academic pursuit.

1.3         PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study is aimed at findings out the following:

1.            To examine the causes of poor nutrition in Oredo local government area of Edo State.

2.            To examine the effect of poor nutrition on children who are malnourished.

3.            To examine the relationship between anti-natal and post natal nutrition.

4.             To examine the academic performance of children suffering from poor nutrition. 

1.4         RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions were formulated.

1.            Does poor nutrition in children causes poor motor development and subsequent low activity level, apathy and lack of interest in environment.

2.            Does poor nutrition have direct effect on children’s central nervous system?

3.            Could nourishment of the children in their first fifteen years influence their academic pursuit?

4.            Do children that are well nourished perform better academically than malnourished ones?  

1.5         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The benefits that could be derived from the outcome of the research work are as follows:

1.            It will provide useful information to parents on how best to provide the necessary nutrition to their children.

2.            Identification of the causes of poor nutrition on children and the implementation of the recommendations suggestion by various nutritional bodies will lead to better and healthy generation.

3.            The result of the research work will be important to parents, government, advisers on child right and well being and education planners.

4.            Lastly, this research work tends to make her findings and recommendations a good starting point for the investigation in related field in the near future. 

1.6         SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is based on the prevailing situation of children under the ages of fifteen years in Oredo local government area of Edo State. The scope is going to cover some selected villages in the locality.

1.7         DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Anti-natal nutrition: This is the taking in of necessary food substance to prevent the unborn child from any impairment before and after birth.

Cognitive development: This is the gradual growth of the child’s mental process of understanding.

Development: This means gradual growth, which becomes more advanced stronger and more efficient.

Intellectual development: This means the development of the child’s ability to think in a logical way and understanding.

Malnutrition: This is a poor condition of health caused by a lack of food or lack of the right type of food.

Motor development: This is the gradual growth of the body movement produced by the muscular and control by nerves.

Nutrition: This is the series of process by which the living organism obtain food substance needed to produce energy and materials for their growth, activities and reproduction.

Poor nutrition: This is a situation of having a very small amount of required nutrient.

Post natal nutrition: This is the process of taking nutrient, needed by a new born child for proper development both physically, mentally and emotionally.

Pre-natal: This is the taking of necessary food nutrient, needed by pregnant women for the proper development of the unborn child.  

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