+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

Evaluation of the Emulsification properties of Hydroxypropylated Cassava Starch and its potential use in cocoa beverage

  • Type:Project
  • Pages:57
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Food Technology Project Topics & Materials)

ABSTRACT
Lecithin is used for applications in human food, animal feed, pharmaceuticals, paints, and other 
industrial applications, but consistent importation of lecithin has a negative effect on foreign 
exchange leading to devaluation of the naira. The need to explore locally available products such 
as cassava starch as a possible substitute to the use of lecithin is paramount, hence, the reason for 
this work. This research was carried out to evaluate the emulsification properties of 
Hydroxypropylated Cassava Starch (HPCS) in cocoa beverage. 
The chemical modification of Native Cassava Starch (NCS) was achieved using propylene oxide 
in an alkaline medium, after it was washed and dried. The modified starch and lecithin were then 
used to produce cocoa beverage samples by agglomeration. Emulsification index was tested along 
with functional properties such as solubility index, bulk density, wettability, dispersibility, total 
soluble solids, swelling power and water absorption capacity.
The emulsification index measured (0.211 - 0.316) after 24h & 7 days and the cocoa agglomerate 
exhibited good solubility index (76%-84%), bulk density (0.8347g/ml - 1 g/ml), wettability (3mins 
10secs – 3mins 46secs), dispersibility (41%-45%), total soluble solids (50-80o
). The HPCS had a 
slightly better swelling power (14%) compared to that of NCS (13.8%) and water absorption 
capacity (171%) to NCS (47%).
The emulsification index revealed that a more stable emulsion was formed using a lower 
percentage of lecithin and a lower percentage of HPCS. This work showed that HPCS has the 
potential of being used as a possible substitute for the use of lecithin in emulsions and cocoa 
beverage as there is no much difference in the emulsions formed by the emulsifiers used.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
List of Table x
List of Figure xi
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction 1
1.1Background Study 1
1.2 Justification 2
1.3 Objectives 2
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review 3
2.1 Emulsifiers 3
2.2 Emulsion Theory and mechanism of action of Emulsifiers 4

2.3 Formation of Emulsions 8
2.4 Classification of emulsions 10
2.5 Lecithin 11
2.5.1 Application of Lecithin 13
2.6 Starch modification 14
2.6.1 Physical Modification 15
2.6.2 Chemical modifications 15
2.6.2.1 Hydroxypropyl Starch (HP) 16
2.6.2.2 Applications of modified starches 17
2.7 Cocoa and cocoa products 19
CHAPTER THREE
Materials and Method 22
3.1 Materials 22
3.2 Sample Preparation 22
3.3 Methodology 22
3.3.1 Hydroxypropyl starch 22
3.3.2 Evaluation of emulsion stability 23
3.3.2.1 Emulsion preparation 23
3.3.2.2 Emulsification Index 23

3.3.3 Agglomeration of cocoa powder with Hydroxypropylated cassava starch 23
3.3.4 Functional properties 24
3.3.4.1 Dispersibility 24
3.3.4.2 Wettability 24
3.3.4.3 Bulk density 24
3.3.4.4 Total soluble solids 25
3.3.4.5 Solubility and Swelling power 25
3.3.4.6 Water Binding Capacity 26
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion 27
4.1 Emulsification Index 27
4.2 Dispersibility 27
4.3 Wettability 30
4.4 Bulk Density 30
4.5 Total Soluble Solids 30
4.6 Solubility and swelling power 31
4.7 Water Absorption Capacity 31

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendation 377
5.1 Conclusion 37
5.2 Recommendation 37
References 38

Evaluation of the Emulsification properties of Hydroxypropylated Cassava Starch and its potential use in cocoa beverage

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Food Technology
Project ID FTE0106
Price ₦3,000 ($20)
No of Pages 57 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Food Technology
    Project ID FTE0106
    Price ₦3,000 ($20)
    No of Pages 57 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, vitamin content and sensory evaluation of cocoa beverage. Cocoa pod was harvested, carefully opened to remove the seeds from the pod, then it was allowed to... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The research was conducted in Obi Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria to evaluate the potentials of the soils for Cassava and Rice cultivation using the requirements for Cassava and Rice as adapted by Sys. (1985) method. The characters used were classified under climatic, physicochemical, topographic, soil wetness and fertility... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The fresh cassava were sources from Idodo in Nkanu Local Government of Enugu state. The weight of the cassava tuber were taken to be 31.50kg. After peeling and washing, it was divided into two equal parts which was 21.13kg for production of sample A and sample B respectively (edible and textile starch) which weighed 13.1kg. During this... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The fresh cassava were sources from Idodo in Nkanu Local Government of Enugu state. The weight of the cassava tuber were taken to be 31.50kg. After peeling and washing, it was divided into two equal parts which was 21.13kg for production of sample A and sample B respectively (edible and textile... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This work is aimed at the production of laundry starch, using locally sourced raw material (cassava tuber), by extraction of the starch granules from the tubers, 80kg of the harvested fresh cassava tubers were peeled and washed twice to remove dirt and earth. The peeled cassava tubers were re-weighed. 75kg of the peeled tubers was grated... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to improve the Cold Water Solubility (CWS) and esterification activity of Native cassava Starch (NS) by pretreatment using NaOH (Sodium hydroxide) aqueous solution. The influence of pretreatment on granule shape and crystal structure of cassava starch was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and... Continue Reading
    PRODUCTION OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA (M aihot esculanta ) AND ITS CROSS LINKED DERIVATIVES CHAPTER ONE 1.0     INTRODUCTION Starch can be obtained from cassava, sorghum, maize, sago and potatoes. But this project focused on the production of starch from cassava. Starch can be cross-linked a product that will be suitable for noodle, salad cream... Continue Reading
      ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to access the determinants of cocoa production under the new cocoa policies in Osun State, Nigeria. The cocoa policies reviewed were soil fertility, access to inputs, pest and diseases, access to credit, access to land and land management, access to information and they were examined to check if it has... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The effects of variety and processing methods on the functional properties of cassava flours were studied. The functional properties of the flour were determined using standard procedures. Cassava roots were fermented, blanched, soaked, dried and milled into flour. The functional properties of the flour were determined. There were variety... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This study was designed to evaluate the potentials of sweet cassava variety TMS 4(2) 1425being manihet palmata and bitter varieties TMS 30572, TMS 30555, and NR 8082 being Manihot utilisima Crantz flours used in the production of fufu,in carrying out the process the root was weighed before and after washing then peele, washed, sliced,... Continue Reading
    Call Us
    Get this work
    whatsappWhatsApp Us