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THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IDUMUJE-UGBOKO COMMUNITY IN DELTA-STATE, NIGERIA, FROM 1900-1960

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:97
  • Methodology:Primary and Secondary data
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(History Project Topics & Materials)
THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IDUMUJE-UGBOKO COMMUNITY IN DELTA-STATE, NIGERIA, FROM 1900-1960
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.1    Introduction    -    -    -    -    -    
1.2    Aim and Objectives of Study    -    -    
1.3    Scope of study    -    -    -    -    -
1.4    Methodology    -    -    -    -    
1.5.     Definition of Term    -    -    -
1.6    Literature Review    -    -    -    
1.7    Chapterization    -    -    -    -
Endnotes    -    -    
CHAPTER TWO: THE ORIGIN OF IDUMUJE-UGBOKO COMMUNITY
2.1    The Origin of Idumuje-Ugboko Community    -    
2.2    Factors that Influenced the Growth and Development of Idumuje-Ugboko Community    -    -    
Endnotes    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: THE SOCIO-POLITICAL AND INFRASTRUCTURAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IDUMUJE-UGBOKO FROM 1900 – 1960
3.1    The Social Organization of Idumuje-Ugboko Community    -
3.2         The Political Organization of Idumuje-Ugboko Community            -             43
3.3     The Infrastructural Growth And Development Of Idumuje-Ugboko, From 1900 – 1960    -    -    
Endnotes    -    -    -
CHAPTER FOUR: IDUMUJE-UGBOKO AND THE WESTERNERS
4.1    The Nature of the Impacts of the Western Missionaries on
Idumuje-Ugboko    
4.2    The Major Challenges to the Growth and Development
ofIdumuje-Ugboko    -
   Endnotes    -    -    
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION
5.1    Summary    -    -
Endnotes    -    -    -    -
Bibliography    -    
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.1    Introduction
This research examines the origin, growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko Community. It also discusses the socio-political organisation of the community from 1900-1960.
From the establishment of the community in about 1678AD, Idumuje-Ugboko has experienced qualitative and quantitative development in different aspects of life such as population, education, belief systems, infrastructure and other areas. This phenomenon is due largely to her contact with neighboring Kingdoms and communities such as the Benin Kingdom, the Ibo’s, Ibodo Community, the Ishans and other communities; Another factor that explains the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko and perhaps the most important was her contact with the Europeans who came in the early years of the 20th century to convert the people of Ugboko to Christianity.1
    IDUMUJE-UGBOKO is a compound word. IDUMUJE means a 'community’ and Ugboko means ‘thick forest’. This initial forest was turned to a farm settlement by inhabitants of a neighboring community- “IDUMUJE UNOR” – According Ovibo Chiazor “As farmers moved to Ugboko to farm, they sometimes, slept there, thus providing farmers the opportunity to hunt at night2. This process led to the1 evolution of Idumuje-Ugboko into a community of its own as distinct from Idumuje-Unor”.
Ugboko was attractive to her early settlers due to her extensive fertile land for farming and hunting purposes, as well as spring water for domestic purposes.3
There is a controversy regarding the dating of the establishment of the community. Some records state the year 1678 as the most probable year while other sources puts it at the latter part of the 18th century, with the balance in the favor of the former.4
          Before the coming of the Europeans (1902) and even till date Idumuje had and still has several shrines which are believed to be the abodes of the gods and goddesses of the land. Some of these shrines includes: Oli Okoli (god of healing and child delivery), OHAI (god of healing), Idigwu (god of iron), Iyoo (god of the stream), OGOZA (god of fertility) and so on.5. These gods and other gods not mentioned are seen as the intermediaries between the people and the Almighty God. This is because it is believed that the Almighty God is too big and awesome for them to approach on their own.
    The advent of African Christian missionaries (1899) and white Christian missionaries in 1902, brought far reaching changes to Idumuje-Ugboko community: Christianity, Bible education, Churches, western medicine and monogamy were introduced. Furthermore, some indigenes of Idumuje-Ugboko left the community to other communities in order to spread the gospel of Christianity.6.
     Be that as it may, there were resistances to the incursion of the white man and the new religion-“Christianity’’. This resistance manifested itself in a series of uprising in 1902 and in 1909 which became known as the Ekwumekwu conflict. However, Christianity was largely successful in penetrating Ugboko.7.
    In the kingdom of Idumuje-Ugboko, the ’Obi’ is at the apex of the social strata. The Obi presides over all meetings with palace chiefs and festivals.  Furthermore, there is the general assembly which makes pronouncements on policies and development programs. Next in line, is the council of chiefs which in turn is followed by the obi-in-council, which is similar to the “state council” of the Bini Kingdom. Further still are the Ndi Onotu’s (titled chiefs led by the Iyase); Ikpala (old men); Ndi Iche (those exempted from the labour force); the Ikolo (labour force of the community)and the youths.8.
     It has been noted earlier on, that Idumuje-Ugboko has experienced developments in terms of infrastructure. For instance: Ugboko now has schools, an ultramodern market, a post office, a hospital, a community bank, modern housing, pipe borne water, electricity and so on. Nevertheless, Ugboko still has some obstructions to further growth and development. These include: conservatism, absence of co-operation, criminality of youths, migration of talented men and women, land disputes and so on.9.
    Hence this research work is designed to examine in detail, how, why and in what sense Idumuje-Ugboko has developed qualitatively and quantitatively from 1900-1960, socially, politically, economically and in terms of infrastructure. This work, also examines in detail, the origin of the community and the challenges to further growth and development of the polity.
1.2    Aim and Objectives of Study
         This study examines the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko Community in Delta-state, 1900-1960. Specifically it seeks to:
1] To examine the origin of Idumuje-Ugboko.
2] To discuss the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko.
3] To expatiate on the impact of Western Missionaries on Idumuje-Ugboko Community.
1.3    Scope of study
This study covers the period: 1900-1960-from the arrival of the Christian missionaries to Idumuje-Ugboko, till the end of colonial rule in Nigeria. This research work seeks to bring to light all the indices of growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko community in Delta state, Nigeria from 1900-1960.
1.4    Methodology
The methodology of research of this project work will be analytical. Both primary and secondary source materials will be used.
1.4.1    Primary Sources
The primary sources of this research work will be oral interviews with resource persons and authorities in Idumuje-Ugboko.
1.4.2    Secondary Sources
The secondary sources of this research work will be published books.
1.5. Definition of Terms    
    It is perhaps not out of place, to examine some of the key terms which will be used throughout this work. The terms referred to, here, are: “Growth”, “Development” and “Community”.  
      1.5.1                Growth
    According to Rich Goldstein: “Growth is the act, process, or manner of growing; developing or gradual increase”.10. Goldstein, meant that “growth” is simply “a process of increasing positive changes. Furthermore, he describes “growth” as simply being “a development, from a simpler stage to a more complex stage”.
    Similarly, Wikipedia, defines “growth” as a positive change in size or maturation, often over a period of time”. Furthermore, “growth can occur as a process towards fulfillment, or can perpetuate endlessly”.11.
    According to the Merriam – Webster Dictionary: “Growth is a stage in the process of growing”. Also, “growth can be defined as an increase or expansion in size”.12.
    The “free dictionary”, defines “growth”, as a “development from a lower or simple form, to a higher or more complex form”. Thus, “growth” is seen as an increase in size, number, value and strength.13.
    Indeed, there are varying definitions of growth. Nevertheless, one key-point can be deduced from the above definitions of growth.- “increase” – thus, growth simply means an increase in the status of a phenomena. It is pertinent to note that while some objects (such as an animal) have limited growth, other phenomenon’s (such as a polity) have unlimited growth.
Since the concept of “Growth” has been satisfactorily examined, we shall now confine ourselves to the concept of “Development”.
1.5.2    Development?
According to the “Business Dictionary”, “Development” is “the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge to meet specific objectives or requirements. Furthermore, “development” is the process of economic and social transformation that is based on complex cultural and environmental factors and their interactions”.14.
Similarly, the “Merriam – Webster dictionary” defines “development” as “the act, process, or result of development”. Also, “Development is the state of being developed”.15.
Furthermore, the “Cambridge Dictionary”, defines “Development” as the “process in which someone or something grows or changes and becomes more advanced; it is also defined as the process of developing something new”.16.
Also the “Your Dictionary”, defines “Development” as the process of growth. It also defines “Development” as “the act of developing and advancing, or the state of being developed. Still, “Your dictionary”, defines “Development” as the application of techniques or technology to the production of new goods or services”.17.
Nevertheless, the “Longman Dictionary” defines “Development” as the “process of gradually becoming bigger, better, stronger, or more advanced”.18.
Also, there is a form of development, called “sustainable development”: “Sustainable development” is “a form of development that is able to continue without damaging the environment”.19.
According to Shelly Shah: “Development” refers to “improvements in ways of managing an area’s natural and human resources, in order to improve lives and create wealth”.20.
Dudley seers, while elaborating on the meaning of “development” suggests that it should be a universally acceptable aim of development to make for conditions that lead to a realization of the potentials of human personality.21. Seers outlined several conditions that can make for the achievement of this aim:
(i)    The capacity to obtain physical necessities, particularly food,
(ii)    Equality; and
(iii)    Literacy.22.
    Finally, on the concept of development, “Amartya Sen”, makes it clear that “development is not simply an increase in income; rather, it encompasses other aspects: such as Health, education and living standards.23. Thus, “Sen” is of the view that “development must be judged by its impacts on the people and not only by changes in their incomes.
    Thus, development carries a connotation of lasting change, in that it conveys something about the capacity of economic, political and social systems to provide the circumstances for human well-being on a sustainable long term basis. This leads us to the concept of a “community”.
1.5.3               Community?
    According to the “Merriam-Webster Dictionary”: “A community is a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society; it is a group linked by a common policy; it is a body of persons having a common history or common social, economic and political interests; it is a unified body of interacting individuals living in a particularly area.24.
    Similarly, the “OXFORD DICTIONARY”, defines a “Community” as a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government and often have a common cultural and historical heritage; it is also a social, religious, occupational or other group sharing common characteristics or interests and perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society within which it exists.25.
According to Wikipedia, the word “Community” is derived from the old French word -“Comunete” – which comes from the Latin word - “Communitas”, - which means “public spirit”. Thus, A “Community” is “a small or large social unit (a group of people) who have something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity. “Often – but not always – communities shares a sense of place that is situated in a given  geographical area”.26.
The English Oxford Living Dictionaries defines a “Community” as “a group of people living in the same place or having a particular characteristic in common”; it is “a group of people of people living together and practicing common ownership”; “it is also considered as a particular area or place considered together with its inhabitants”; still, a community is described as “a body of nations or states, unified by common interests; and lastly, a “community is composed of the people in a district or country considered collectively especially in the context of social values and responsibilities.27.
Similarly, the “Business Dictionary” defines a community as a “self-organized network of people with a common agenda, cause, or interest, who collaborate by sharing ideas, information and other resources.28.
Furthermore, the ‘Cambridge Dictionary” defines a community as a people living in one particularly area, or people who are considered as a unit because of their common interests, social group or nationality.29.
It is helpful to note that a “Community” can also be seen as a value (Frazer 2000: pp. 76).30. As such, it may well be used to bring together a number of elements: for example, solidarity, commitment, mutuality and trust.
From the above definitions, it is clear that “community” is a “group of people living together in the same place of having a particular characteristic in common; it is further revealed that “it is the condition of sharing or having certain attitudes and interests in common”.
1.6    Literature Review
    Chief professor Somayina Nwoko writes: ‘’when the western missionaries arrived Ugboko in1902, the reigning king-obi Omorhusi, welcomed them warmly, erected a mission house for them and gave his son the crown prince to them to train. Nevertheless, the earliest church missionaries met a culture and custom that thrived in secrecy, where the road to development was resented, where white people were seen as people who could desecrate traditional homes and shrines and opponents of killing of twins. This resentment led to the Ekwumekwu war in which great destruction took place at Idumuje. Houses, the church of the church missionary society and school were burnt down.14.
This account, shows that the early white missionaries who came to bring growth to the community, faced great animosity from the indigenes of Ugboko. It also shows that one major factor which influenced the growth and development of idumuje-Ugboko, was the arrival of the Christian missionaries in 1902. However, it also displays the fact that the natives of Ugboko were opposed to the missionaries, as wel as the new ideas, which they (white Christian missionaries came with). Although, this account tells us that the church of the C.M.S., the Houses of the missionaries, as well as the school was burnt down, as a result of the people’s surprising against the Christians, the fact that for the first time, Ugboko had a school and a Christian church, was in itself, an expression of growth and development.
    According to Oyibo Chiazor: open violent conflict between tradition and Christianity has died down. What now exists are taboos, inquisitions, marriage ceremonial requirements, conscription to general street maintenance labour, general rejection of ceremonial dance and rejection of traditional titles. Through this means, tradition holds Christianity between her thighs and Christianity tries to rear its head.15.
The above exposition shows that while there is no full scale war between progress and conservatism, a form of antagonism is ongoing. This account, also agrees with the fact that Christianity was a major factor that influenced the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko, from 1900-1960. It also makes it clear that the progressive tendencies of Christianity was inimical to the traditions of the land (Ugboko) and thus, spured negative reactions from traditional elements. Nevertheless, this account neglects other factors that influenced the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko from 1900-1960, such as: the people’s response to their environmental circumstances; inter-group relations and the forces of modernization, resulting from colonial rule.
    In related literature, Chijioke Okolie states: Idumuje-Ugboko is a conservative society; more so, there is the phenomenon of suppression of healthy assistance in Idumuje-Ugboko regarding infrastructural developments; furthermore, our youths are metamorphosing into criminals; still, talented men and women make themselves unavailable for consultative purposes regarding town issues. In addition, the spirit of cohesion is not very strong.16.
Obviously, Chijioke neglected all the indices of development in Ugboko, (1900-1960) such as the establishment of a church, a school, a community Bank, a post office, and a dispensary. In short in his work, he focused only on the conservative aspect of Ugboko community. He also neglected the various factors that influence the growth and development of Idumuje-ugboko community from 1900-1960s.
    These reviews show that while Idumuje-Ugboko has grown since 1900 both socially, politically and in terms of infrastructure, the polity still has a long way to go. This is due to several limiting factors, some of which have been mentioned.
1.7    Chapterization
Chapter one: Introduction / Background to the study
    This chapter is the general introduction to the essay. It focuses on the introduction to the essay, aims and objectives, scope of study, methodology of the research project, and literature review on the topic of discussion.
Chapter Two:  The Origin of Idumuje-Ugboko Community
    This chapter, examines the origin of Idumuje-Ugboko and tries to pin-point the location of the community in present day Nigeria. This chapter also focuses on the factors that influenced the growth and development of Idumuje-Ugboko.
Chapter Three: The Socio-Political and Infrastructural Growth and Development of
Idumuje-Ugboko from 1900-1960.
This chapter sheds light on how and in what sense Idumuje-Ugboko has grown socially, politically and in terms of infrastructure from 1900-1960.
Chapter Four: Idumuje-Ugboko and the Westerners
This chapter examines the nature of the impacts of the western missionaries on Idumuje-Ugboko and how the indigenes of the town responded to their visitors. It also looks at some of the challenges to the further growth and development of the town.
Chapter Five: Conclusion
This chapter summarizes the entire essay. It re-echoes all that have been discussed in the preceding chapters.
Endnotes
1.    Idumuje-Ugboko Development Union, Annual Report, 1968, pp.2.
2.    Ibid p.4.
3.    Oral Interview with “Chief Akabunwa Anizor”- A member of the “Obi in Council”, at his residence in Ugboko, Delta State on January 4th 2017.
4.    Oral Interview with “Mr Hope Okolie” – “An Indigene of Idumuje-Ugboko and a geographer”, at his residence in Okpanam, Asaba, Delta State on December 22nd 2016.
5.    Oral Interview with “Mr. Gabriel Ogbechie” – “An Indigene of Idumuje Ugboko and a member of the Ndi Onotu’s”, at his residence in Ugboko, Delta State on January 3rd 2017.
6.    Ibid.
7.    Ibid.
8.    Oral Interview with “Chief Chris Ogu” – “The Current Iyase of Idumuje – Ugboko” and “former editor of pointer Newspaper”, at his residence in Ugboko, Delta State on December 23rd 2016.
9.    Oral Interview with “Raphael Diai” – “An Indigene of Idumuje-Ugboko and the Secretary of Idumuje development Union, Agbor branch, Delta State” at his residence in Agbor, Delta State, on December 26th 2016.
10.    Rich Goldstein-“After the Fall”, 2005, pp. 6. Oxford University Press.
11.    Definition of “Growth”-Synthesized from “Wikipedia”.
12.     Definition of “Growth”-Synthesized from “Merriam-Webster Dictionary”.
13.     The Free Dictionary-“Definition of Growth”.
14.     “The Business Dictionary”-Definition of “Development”.
15.     “Merriam Webster Dictionary” Definition of Development.
16.    “ Cambridge Dictionary”   Definition of Development.
17.    “Your Dictionary”   Definition of Development.
18.    “Longman Dictionary”  Definition of Development.
19.    “The Brundtland Report” Definition of Sustainable Development, (Oxford University Press),  United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development.
20.    Meaning and Concept of Development, Article by Shelly Shah, 2012, pp.2.
21.    Ibid, pp.3.
22.    Ibid, pp.3.
23.    Development, by “Amartya Sen” (2012), pp.4.
24.    “Merriam Webster Dictionary” Definition of a Community.
25.    The Oxford Dictionary. “Definition of a Community”.
26.    The Concept of a Community, “synthesized from Wikipedia”.
27.    The English Oxford Living Dictionaries, “Definition of a Community”.

THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF IDUMUJE-UGBOKO COMMUNITY IN DELTA-STATE, NIGERIA, FROM 1900-1960

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Type Project
Department History
Project ID HIS0066
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 97 Pages
Methodology Primary and Secondary data
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department History
    Project ID HIS0066
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 97 Pages
    Methodology Primary and Secondary data
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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