SURROGACY CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Surrogacy is a method of assisted reproduction following an agreement whereby a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy to terms for another person or people as the case may be, these persons in the agreement with the surrogate mother will become the parents to the new born child after birth. If the surrogate mother receives monetary compensationit is known as commercial surrogacy, if not it is simply altruistic. Surrogacy is seldom the first choice on the journey to have children and build a family, often, people come to surrogacy after trying and exhausting other options such as intra uterine inseminations (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gametes intra fallopian transfer (GIFT), research has it that the most common reasons why people come to surrogacy among anyother reasons which are medical problems such as impotency on the part of the male intending parent, absence of uterus, impaired uterus, medical conditions which could be heightened by surprises and eventually endanger a woman’s health and life, and same sex marriage. Surrogacy is a topic and an issue that remains controversial among many people and nations. The scientific development however has been appreciated by the beneficiaries of the process. The growing surrogacy phenomenon in which women agree to have their babies used to undergo a pregnancy and give birth to the resulting to the baby is becoming a major issues of discussion and a for a ground of battle of opinion, it is often referred as ‘womb renting’ wherein a bodily service is provided for a fee or compensation. The practice is fraught with complexity and controversy surrounding the implications forwomen’s health, dignity, and human rights of the childand the mother, morality, ethics and religion, some societies are beginning to grapple with the issues it raises. A few of many issues raised by surrogacy includes: the rights of the child (REN) produced, the ethical, moral, religious and practical ramifications of the further commodification of women’s bodies; the lack of national laws and regulations on surrogacy in most countries is cast against a background of rapid usage. In surrogacy, the rights of the child are almost never considered, the transferring of duties of parenthood from the birthing mother to the contract couple denies the child to and with the gestational mother. This births the question, ‘who is the real or true mother to the surrogate child? The one who incubated the child or the one who is responsible for the spiritual, mental and physical social and otherwise upbringing’? Surrogacy simply degrades a pregnancy to a service for hire and a baby for a mere product of commercial agreement, it is the commodification of the women’s body. It is significant that the stance of certain nations or countries on surrogacy be known because of direct or indirect commercial, political, religious and cultural relations to these countries. In Nigeria, gestational surrogacy is practiced by a few IVF chinks, the guidelines are as approved by the practice guidelines of the ‘association of fertility and reproductive health’ (AFRH) of Nigeria. The Art regulation that is currently being considered by the senate permits surrogacy and allows some inducement to be paid for transport and other expenses. In Greece, surrogacy is legal [Law 3305/2005] (‘enforcement of medically assisted reproduction’). Israel in march 1996, legalized gestational surrogacy under the embryo carrying agreement law, in Iran, surrogacy is legal and popularly practiced, in the United Kingdom (UK) commercial surrogacy arrangements are illegal, prohibited by the surrogacy arrangement act 1985’, Saudi Arabian religious authorities do not allow the use of surrogate mothers, instead suggest medical procedures to restore fertility and ability to deliver. The United states of America has surrogacy and its legal issues under state jurisdiction and legal situation for surrogacy varies from state to state, surrogacy friendly states include California, Illinois, Arkansas, Maryland and New Hampshire, in states like Michigan, it is a felony punishable by fine of up to $50,000 and up to five years in prison. 1.2 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS For ease in the study of this material, it is paramount that certain reoccurring terms be clarified: 1.2.1 SURROGACY Surrogacy is a scientific development in the field of child bearing which involves an agreement where a woman agrees to carry a pregnancy to term for a person or people, with or without an agreed compensation. This practice dates as far back as biblical times. 1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM With the ideological controversies and conflicts in the world especially in the religious (Christian) world as it relates to surrogacy, this project attempts to answer certain questions: -The meaning and definition of surrogacy. -Impact on the world as it relates to infertility and child bearing. -The position of the church on surrogacy. 1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Basically, this project aims at the following goals: -to peruse the concept of surrogacy -to explore the impacts of surrogacy on the church and the world. -to relate the position or stance of the church on surrogacy. -to proffer a balance between the ideals of scientific development in reproduction and the ideals of the church on procreation. 1.5 METHODOLOGY The methodology of this research is archival and critical. Hence, books, journals, the internet, and all sources bearing information on the subject matter and related topics would be consulted for a concrete report. 1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY The scope of study of this research document is restricted to the definition and meaning of surrogacy as well as the stance of the church, bioethicists and philosophers on surrogacy. 1.7 DIVISION OF WORK This work is divided into five chapters, each chapter bearing an idea connected to other chapters for a wholesome project. Chapter one comprises of the general introduction, clarification of terms, statement of problem, aims and objectives, methodology, scope of study and division of work. Chapter two explores marriage, old and new testament views on marriage, the history and types of surrogacy. Chapter three views the impacts of surrogacy, chapter for highlights the position of the church, philosophers and bioethicists on surrogacy. Chapter five offers an appraisal and conclusion. END NOTES 1. K. Weisberg, The Birth of Surrogacy in Israel (Florida: University of Florida Press, 2015). P64. 2. D. Grady, Medical First, a Transplant of Uterus (New York Times, 2002). 3. E. Terman, Birthing a Mother: The Surrogate Body and the Pregnant Self. Berkley: University of California Press, 2010) P45. 4. Abiola Adewusi, Chizara Okeke, Kemi Ailoje, and Oladapo Aishiru (The SixthConference of Gie Raf, Cote De Ivoire, February 2017).