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THE EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILD LABOR: A STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:56
  • Methodology:Quantitative and Qualitative Method
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
THE EFFECTS OF POVERTY ON CHILD LABOR: A STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE
ABSTRACT

The general objective of this research study is to examine, to find out the extent of child poverty in Egor Local Government Area, to find out  the effect of poverty in children under the age of 18 years in Egor Local Government Area and also the negative aspect of child labor in Egor Local Government Area. The questionnaire and interview instrument will be used to collect the data from the respondents.  The analysis of the study is based on the instrument used for data collection. It consists of quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. According  to the findings, there are factors that can be related to child labour, which can range from poverty , lack of education, low economical background, absence of policies, and lack of awareness and so on. However, children who are not well educated due to some constraint or factors may be face with low self-esteem and actualization. Many parents who have many children due to polygamous type of marriage do have a lot of children from various wives, and due to this, it can be difficult to carter for them, mainly were there are no good economic background or better welfare for the family. This can lead or make most of the children to be out to felt for themselves in other to survive in the society. Child labour has various forms; child slavery and slave life practices, forced or compulsory laour, including debt bondage and seldom, the use of children in prostitution, pornography and the drug trade activities.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE    
INTRODUCTION
Background Of The Study    -    
Statement Of The Problem    -    
Research Questions    -    
Objectives of the Study    -    
Significance of the Study    -    
Definition of the Terms    -    
CHAPTER TWO
Literature Review    -
2.2 Review of Empirical Literature    
2.3 Theoretical Framework    -
2.4 Review of relevant theory    -    -    
2.5 Hypothesis    -
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Research Design    -    
3.2 Population of the Study    -    -
3.3 Sample size and Sample Technique
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection    -
3.5 Method of Data Analysis    -
CHAPTER FOUR
 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction    -
4.2 Socio-Demography of Respondents by Sex                                                                                                       
4.3 Major Research Issues
44 Discussion of finding    
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion     
5.2 Recommendation    s-
Reference    -    
Questionnaire    -    -
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Child poverty refers to the phenomenon of children living in poverty. This applies to children that come from a poor family background or orphans being raised with the minimum acceptable standards of living for the nation where that child lives are used to be poor. In developing countries these standard are lower and when combined with the increased number of orphans the effects are more extreme.
The definition of children in most countries is people under the age of eighteen; while biologically the transition from childhood to adulthood to said to occur with the onset of puberty. Culturally defining the end of childhood is more complex, and takes into account factors such as the commencement of work, end of schooling and marriage as well as class, gender and race. According to the United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) “children living in poverty are those who experiences deprivation of the materials, spiritual and emotional resources needed to survive, develop and thrive, leaving them unable to enjoy their rights, achieve their full potentials or participate as full and equal member of the society”.
The Child Fund International (CFI) definition is based in Deprivation (lack of materialistic condition and services). Exclusion (denial of rights and safety) and Vulnerable (when society cannot deal with threats to children) other charitable organizations also uses this multidimensional approach to child poverty, defining it as a combination of economic, social, cultural, physical, environmental and emotional factors. These definitions suggest child poverty as multidimensional, relative to their current and changing living condition and complex interactions of the body, mind and emotions are involved.
The easiest way to qualify child poverty is by setting the absolute or relative monetary threshold. If a family does not earn above that threshold, the children of the family will be considered to live below the poverty line. Absolute poverty threshold are fixed and generally only updated for price changes, whereas relative poverty threshold are developed with reference to the actual income of the population and reflect changes in consumption. The absolute poverty thresholds are the money needed to purchase a defined quantity of goods and services. While there is no exact standard used to set the thresholds, and it varies from country to country, it generally reflects the minimum income needed to acquire the necessities of life. Certain organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Funds, use the absolute poverty thresholds of U.S$1 a day to measure poverty in developing countries. Since the 1960s, the US has use absolute poverty thresholds adjusted for family size and composition to determine those living in poverty. Europe and many other developed countries use a relative poverty threshold, typically 50% of the countries average income. Relative poverty does not necessarily mean the child is lacking anything but is more a reflection of inequality in society. Child poverty, when measure using relative thresholds, will only improve if low-income families benefit more from economic advances than well-off families. Measures of Child poverty using income thresholds will vary depending on whether relative or absolute poverty is measured and what relative measures, poverty is much higher in the US than in Europe, but if an absolute measure is used then poverty in some Europe countries is higher. It is argued that using income as the only threshold ignores the multidimensional aspects of child poverty, which includes consumption requirement, access to resources and the ability to interact in society safety and without discrimination.
Statement of the problem
Child labour as a result of poverty can contribute to the economic growth and development, however, the risks that are attached supersede the economic positive aspect of it. Risks like motor accident, rape, kidnapping, extortion, sexual molestation and the child involvement in robbery and other anti-social behaviors are too great to ignore. Child hawking exposes the child to a lot of hazards like sexual defilement, sexual assaults, neglects and threat of punishment for speaking out a exemplified. The consequences of these acts usually result in an unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, psychological problems and a gradual withdrawal from a healthy relationship with the opposite gender (UNICEF, 2000). Oloko (1989) noted that street hawking exposes the male and female child to danger posed by fraudsters and actual murderers because of their vulnerability at odd hawking hours. They are usually under personal jeopardy, harsh and hazardous condition such as becoming an easy target to occult predators (ritual killers). Although, various efforts were made by federal government and non-governmental organizations to stem the trend, such as the creation of children`s games village, the passage of the Child`s Rights Bill in 2005 by the National Assembly and the subsequent passage by some states, not much has been achieve as the trend continues.
Child labor is recognized as the worst form of abuse and exploitation of children. The convention on rights of child (CRC) urges the governments to take effective measures for its eradication. Child labor is pervasive problem in developing countries. Africa and Asia account for over 90% of total child employment. The international labor organization (ILO) estimates the number of working children are abour 250 million in the developing countries, of whom at least 120 million are working full time. Of these working children 61% are in Asia, 32% in Africa and 7% in Latin America. In Pakistan about eight million children are working in different occupations and two third of them are employed full time. The fundamental rights of child as survival, education, protection and development are grossly violated by child labor. The root cause of child labor is extreme poverty which forces the parents to employ their children for some extra money for daily living.
Child labour is a complex issue and various factors behind the laboring predominate indifferent contexts. To be able to combat child labour in Nigeria, the underlying causes must be understood. In-debt understanding of the situation must include special attention to the children`s own views which the study believes are the most important source of information, therefore, this study wants to investigate the underlying factors responsible for child poverty in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State.
Research questions
For the purpose of this research to be achieved, the following research questions will be raised:
The level of awareness of children living in poverty in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area.
The socio-cultural effects of poverty on child labor.
What are the effect of poverty to child labour.
Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this research study is to examine
To find out the extent of awareness of child poverty in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area
To find out  the effect of poverty in children under the age of 18 years in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area
The negative aspect of child labor in ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area
Significance of the Study
The overall concern of the study is to obtain information, which can be used to proffer solution to child poverty, prioritize and monitor the worrisome problem of working children.
The first specific concern is to determine the categories of the economic activities of children in rural and urban areas and the sectors in which they work in order to obtain valid information. The survey was designed to identify categories of child labour including unpaid family workers, paid workers in agricultural sectors, apprentices,as well as nomadic activities and household keeping activities of children.
The second concern is the determination of the conditions under which children work, namely; regularity, time-demand, intensity, periods, problems and hazard of works. Moreover, information was obtained on the physical and social environment of work.
The third concern of the survey is to obtain information on the attributes of children who carried out different categories of work such as age, gender, socio-economic status and other circumstances of their families as well as their ages at commencement of work and their educational and health status.

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0221
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 56 Pages
Methodology Quantitative and Qualitative Method
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0221
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 56 Pages
    Methodology Quantitative and Qualitative Method
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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