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THE PREVALENCE OF FEMALE TRAFFICKING IN UGBOR COMMUNITY: CASE STUDY OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE.

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:90
  • Methodology:Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
THE PREVALENCE OF FEMALE TRAFFICKING IN UGBOR COMMUNITY: CASE STUDY OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, EDO STATE.
ABSTRACT

Female trafficking in general and the trafficking of women in particular have been attracting increasing interest from states, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, the media and academia. The greater visibility conferred on this phenomenon has translated, on a national and international level, into policies designed to combat and prevent it, whose efficiency is debatable. This is the result not only of a lack of understanding of the specific features of the trafficking of women, but also of the fact that other objectives underlying the construction of these policies hardly meet the subjective needs and expectations of trafficked women. This article discusses some of the issues and both emerging and absent from the legal framework for the sexual trafficking of women, with reference to the empirical situation of sexual trafficking in Nigeria as analyzed in the study.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
Background of study    -
1.2 Statement of the problem    -        
Objective of the study    
1.4 Research Questions    
1.5 Significance of Study    
1.6 Definition of Concept    
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. Review of Relevant Literature    -    -    
2.1.1 Trafficking Women And Sex Slavery    -
2.1.2 Human Trafficking And Globalization -
2.1.3     The Context Of Female Trafficking In Nigeria -    
2.1.4     Types Of Trafficking-    -    
2.1.5      Causes Of Female Trafficking in Nigeria
2.1.6     Methods And Techniques Of Trafficking
2.1.7    Consequences OF Female Trafficking-    
2.1.8     Role Of Social Workers In The Fight Against Human Trafficking
2.2     Review Of Relevant Theories-
Marxist Perspective    -
2.3    Theoretical framework    
2.3.1    Neo- Classical Theory -
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODLOGY
3.1 Introduction -    -
3.2 Research Design     -
3.3 Population of the Study    -
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique -    -
3.5 Research Instrument  
3.6 Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument-
3.7 Method of Data Collection-
3.8 Method of Data Analysis -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Introduction    
4.1.1    Demographic Analysis of the Respondents     -
4.2.1    Analysis of Female Trafficking    
4.2.2    Analysis of Factors Responsible for Female Trafficking    
4.2.3    Analysis of Government Role in Cubing Female Trafficking
4.2.4     analysis of the role of social workers in cubing female Trafficking    -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,  RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.0 Introduction     -    
5.1 Summary     -    -
5.2   Conclusion -    -    
5.3Recommendations -    
References    -    
Questionnaire    -
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Trafficking in persons, especially women and children, is a serious global issue that is not confined to a specific country or region (U.S. Department of State "Trafficking in Persons Report, 2014). Trafficking is largely a hidden crime, it is difficult to accurately determine the true prevalence of trafficking in women (United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, 2012). Although valid and reliable data are hard to find, a recent report estimated that 24.9 million individuals around the world are currently victims of forced labor (ILO, 2017). These individuals are exploited in economic activities such as agriculture, fishing, domestic work, construction, manufacturing, and the commercial sex industry. Although the majority of detected victims are trafficked across international borders, 42% are victimized within their own countries (UNODC, 2016). Among these detected victims, 71% are female and 28% are children (UNODC, 2016).
Trafficking is frequently aggravated by socio-economic problems, conflicts, or natural disasters that force people to seek work far from home or to migrate for survival (Sigmon, 2008). Macro-level factors associated with trafficking include economic injustice, poverty, wars and natural disasters, globalization of the consumer market, lesser respect for females, unattached men in construction operations and military installations in developing countries, and global sex tourism (Roby, 2005). Micro-level risk factors include family breakdown, poor family relations, child abuse and neglect, mental illness and substance use among parents, and homelessness among children (Roby, 2005).
Trafficking in persons is a serious crime in which humans, especially females, are bought and sold as commodities. It is now a global phenomenon, but more prevalent in certain countries of the world. The European Police Organization(EUROPOL) has labeled the Nigerian organized network dealing in trafficking in persons as one of the major law enforcement challenges facing many European countries (US Trafficking Report, 2014). The United Kingdom government reports in 2014 that Nigeria generates the second highest number of potential victims of trafficking in persons. The leading country with a higher number of potential victims was Albania (SundaySun, 2015). Arising from her population size, economic potentials, political crises and geographical location, Nigerian is a source, transit and destination country for trafficking in persons in the West African sub – region (Adepoju, 2014).
 The nature of trafficking is both international and within the national borders, in which the young girls are recruited and trafficked for sexual exploitation and domestic servitude. The Nigerian trafficking situation has been compounded by the international terrorist group, Boko Haram, who have been forcefully recruiting young boys as child soldiers and abducting women and girls in the north-eastern parts of the country and subjecting them to sexual slavery though forced marriages to terrorists and domestic servitude around the neighboring countries of Chad, Niger Republic, Sudan, and Cameroun (NAPTIP, 2015). According to United States Department of State Trafficking Report (2014), Nigerian women and young girls are trafficked and subjected to forced prostitution in Italy, Spain, Scotland, the Netherlands, Germany, Ireland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Greece, and Russia, the Middle East especially Dubai, North Africa and Malaysia. In some of these countries, the young girls also serve as hard drugs courier and mules for the trafficking network.
The international economic undertone of trafficking in persons, as being predominantly emanating from poorer countries in the international system was given emphasis by the United Nations 1994 General Assembly when it described trafficking in persons as the illegal and clandestine smuggling or "movements of persons across national and international borders, largely from developing countries (largely from African continent) and some countries in transition (largely from Eastern Europe and Asian continent) with the end goal of forcing women and girl children (especially) into sexually or economically oppressive and exploitative situations for the profit of recruiters, traffickers and crime syndicates." (UNICEF, 2011). This study intends to research on the prevalence of female trafficking in Oredo, Benin City, Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Human trafficking is being described as a global problem and a modern form of slavery. Women and children are the key target groups because of their unequal socio-economic status and their lack of awareness of their legal rights (Onyejekwe, 2005). this indicates, that women and girls make up 98 percent of the overwhelming majority of those trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation (ILO, 2008). Several factors have been explored as the root causes of human trafficking and these includes familydisintegration, genderinequality, feminization of poverty, feminization of migration,  globalization, and patriarchy.
According to the UNODC (2016) highlighted that, of the persons trafficked for sexual exploitation, 97% are women and girls, while over one-third of persons trafficked for labor are women. In the same vain, UNODC (2014) reported that children in general and girls in particular, represented a continually increasing share of detected trafficking victims over the period 2004 to 2011. Other reports have identified a similar trend in traffickers targeting young girls within younger ages, believing they will be easier to control and to “satisfy high demand for sex with young girls” (UNODC, 2014). Nigeria is currently being described as a leading country in human trafficking with UNICEF classifying her as a leading country of origin for human trafficking (Skogeth, 2006).
In as much as Nigeria is being described as the center hub for human trafficking, the metropolitan Benin City of Edo State is considered as a major market for cross border commercial sex work arising from human trafficking(Onyeonoru, 2005, Norli, 2006).  Majority of the previous studies conducted in relation to women trafficking and international prostitution in Benin City identified economic depression, occasioned by Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) as the root cause of this imbroglio (Women’s Health and Action Research Centre (WHARC, 2012; Osakue & Okoedion, 2012; UNICRI/UNODC, 2013; Onyeonoru, 2013). Previous studies reveal that there is the involvement of close relatives or family members in the process of trafficking. As observed by (Long ,2014), trafficking for sexual exploitation though a worldwide phenomenon, indicates a cultural practice within the given society.
Nigeria's response to addressing the menace of trafficking in persons has been driven by human rights abuses associated with human trafficking which over the years, had become very embarrassing in the international community, especially in Europeas Nigeria has been described as a source of transit to destination country for trafficked persons (International Labour Organization, 2008). Besides, Nigeria was keen on fulfilling her international obligation to the United Nations Conventions and Protocols she had signed. The National Legislation to domesticate the Protocol was sponsored as a private member Bill in the National Assembly sponsored by a Non-Governmental Organization, the Women Trafficking and Child Labor Eradication Foundation (WOTCLEF) in collaboration with some other civil society groups.The Bill was passed and signed into law in July 2003, as the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Law Enforcement and Administration Act 2003 (as amended). This law, amended in 2005, has now been repealed, and a new legal framework put in place to fight trafficking in persons in Nigeria. This suggests Nigeria has put adequate legal provisions in place to protect women’s rights with regards to human trafficking, but the implementation and enforcement remain a controversial matter altogether. Laws are not implemented in a vacuum, but within a social structure.  The non implementations of these laws have also contributed to the prevalence of female trafficking in Edo State.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this work is to examine the prevalence of female trafficking in Ugbor Community of Oredo Local Government of Edo State.
The specific objectives of this study are to:
To understand the degree of the prevalence of female trafficking in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
To examine socio-economic factors that militate the prevalence of female trafficking in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
To examinethe strategies and interventions employed by the Government to address the prevalence of female trafficking.
To identify interventions and strategies employed by traffickers in trafficking victims of organized crime.
To identify the role of Social Workers in addressing the menace of female trafficking.
 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the assumption made, the following research questions are postulated.
What is the degree of the organized crime in trafficking victims  in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State?
What are the socio-economic factors that influence the prevalence of female trafficking in Ughoton Community of Edo State?
What are the strategies and interventions employed by the Government to address the prevalence of female trafficking?
What interventions and strategies employed by traffickers in trafficking victims of organized crime?
What are the roles social workers play in addressing the menace of female trafficking?
 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be relevant to both theoretically and practically. Contribution to existing literature,  the study will  provide  the  general  public  with  information  on  the  involvement  of  organized  criminal groups  in  human  trafficking.  This  study  intends  to  add  to  the  body  of  existing  knowledge  on human trafficking and female trafficking in Nigeria. Such studies will give us important information that will enables us to contextualize information from other sources, and also to monitor changes, for instance in response to policies.
The awareness that this study will create will serve as a strategy for strengthening  crime  prevention  against  female  trafficking,  especially  to  the  inhabitants  of Ugbor Community in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. It will be useful to the body charged with combating human trafficking in Nigeria which is (NAPTIP),  This  study  will  further  encourage  awareness  campaigns;  when  people  are informed,  the  chances  of  their  being  at  risk  is  significantly  reduced. This kind of research will improve our understanding of how prostitution arenas are organized, and with this, also our understanding of female trafficking for prostitution.
1.6 DEFINITIONS OF CONCEPTS
Human Trafficking: This involves the act and attempted act of recruitment and transportation of persons (both male and female) within or across borders.
Women Trafficking: This refers to the recruitment and transportation of women across national or international borders either voluntarily or involuntarily, for sexual or domestic purposes. It also includes the purchase, sale, transfer, receipt or harboring of young girls and women through deception for the purpose of subjecting the women and girls to involuntary servitude..
Women Traffickers: These are organized criminal rings involved in the smuggling (illegal transportation) of women across national borders to regional destinations(e.g. Europe and Italy). They are commonly referred to as “Trolley”, “Italo” “Sponsors”, “Madame” and “Boss”, etc.
Trafficked Persons: These are persons, male and female, recruited and transported within or across national borders for the purpose of sexual or domestic services.
Internal Trafficking: This is also referred to as domestic trafficking. It involves the recruitment and transportation of persons within the borders of a country, either from rural to urban areas or from one State to another, for purposes of sex work, child labor, or domestic services.
External trafficking (Cross-border trafficking):External  trafficking  is  also  referred  to  as  “international  trafficking”  and involves the movement of people across national, continental and international borders  for  the  purpose  of  sex  work,  child  labour  and  domestic  service  in exchange for monetary reward (Akor, 2007).

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0220
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 90 Pages
Methodology Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0220
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 90 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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