EFFECT OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE ON MARITAL RELATION: A STUDY OFUSELUCOMMUNITY,EDOSTATE
The general objective of this study is to determine the effect of domestic violence on marital relationship. Other objectives include, to assess the knowledge and perception of violence against women in Benin City, to ascertain the causes of domestic violence, to find out the effect of domestic violence on children academic performance, to contribute to existing literature on domestic violence.
The study adopts a cross sectional descriptive study design will be used Data collected was collated, tallied and analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics of percentages,
The instrument to be used for data collection is questionnaire.
The research findings illustrate the common themes embedded in the narratives initiate reflection on and discussion of the concept of domestic violent. These themes suggest that domestic violence in marital relationship can be generated through a number of ways and understood in terms of dialogical processes, reflexive practices, discourse construction, localized actions, and collective actions. The findings of this study also support the assertion that the government should be encouraged to support locally rooted initiatives that put to domestic violent in mariages. Relatedly, these finding suggest that reinvigorating domestic violent and education related to community organization and community development will be an important part of making the transition to a social practice paradigm. The findings from the study reinforces the idea that domestic violence is a potent focus around which community convenes, relationships can be strengthened, community engagement encouraged, and through which the broader project of building socially just and environmentally sustainable alternatives can vigorously be pursued. A major implication is the need for education and training of adults with the knowledge of how to manage a successful marital relations through critical reflection activities, and supporting the broad goal of critical social youth empowerment.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem -
1.3 Objectives of the Study -
1.4 Research Questions -
1.5 Significance of the Study -
1.6 Definition of Terms -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Review of Relevant Concepts - - - -
2.1.1 Domestic Violence - - - -
2.1.2 Domestic Violence Against Women -
2.1.3 Prevalence of Domestic Violence -
2.1.4 The Nigeria Perception - - -
2.1.5 Forms of Domestic Violence -
2.1.6 Causes Of Domestic Violence - -
2.1.7 Effects Of Domestic Violence -
2.1.8 Role of Social support in Domestic Violence against Women -
2.2 Theoretical Framework - -
2.2.1 Theories of Attachment - -
2.2.2 Structural Theory
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Introduction -
3.2 Research Design -
3.3 Population of the Study -
3.4 Sampling Techniques -
3.5 Sampling Size - -
3.6 The Research Instrument
3.7 Data Analysis Method -
CHAPTERFOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTAND
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Introduction - -
4.1 Data AnalysisandInterpretation -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND
5.1 Introduction - - -
5.2 Summary -
5.3 Recommendations -
5.4 Conclusion - -
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Domestic violence also known as domestic abuse, spousal abuse, battering, family violence and intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pattern of abusive behaviours by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, dating, family or cohabitation. The US Office and Violence Against
Women (OVM) defines domestic violence as a “pattern of abusive behaviour in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner”. The definition adds that domestic violence “can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender”, and can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional, economic and psychological abuse (Office of Violence Against Women, 2007).
Violence against women is a technical term used to collectively refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women. Similar to a hate crime, this type of violence targets a specific group with victim‟s gender as primary motive. The United Nations General Assembly defines violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. The 1993 Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women noted that this violence could be perpetrated by assailants of either gender, family members and even the „State‟ itself (United Nations, 2013). Worldwide governments and organizations actively work to combat violence against women through a variety of programmes. A UN resolution designated November 25 as International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women.
Domestic violence against women is a violation of women‟s human rights beyond geographical, cultural, religious, social, and economic conditions. It is a common problem experienced by women all around the world to varying degrees and types. As an important public health concern, it has strong social, cultural, and psychological basis, and has devastating physical, emotional, social, and financial effects. Despite direct effects on women, it also affects women‟s children, families, and the society as a whole. Domestic violence against women has received increased attention from academic, clinical, and research communities. Studies in the field revealed high incidence of spousal assault, and reported domestic violent acts among the most frequently committed crimes (Avis, 2012). As one of the most pressing societal problems today (APA, 2002), domestic violence against women represents a serious violation of women‟s human rights. It is an important cause of injury, and a risk factor for many physical and psychological health problems among women (Watts & Zimmerman, 2002).
Researches in the field generally labeled domestic violence against women as male violence against women, family violence, intimate partner violence, intimate partner abuse, domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife abuse, and the like. In many other studies, the term included violence against women and girls by intimate partners, including cohabiting partners, and by other family members (UNICEF, 2000). Nevertheless, at the international and national levels, the most commonly cited term was “domestic violence against women” from reputable organizations and numerous academicians(e.g., UNICEF, 2000; WHO, 2005; Turkish Republic, Prime Ministry, Directorate General on the Status of Women, 2009).
According to UNICEF, domestic violence is generally perpetrated by men who are, or who had been, in the positions of trust, intimacy and power for the women. International, national, and regional studies revealed that domestic violence is a global women’s human rights problem that is prevalent in all the societies across regional, ethnic, racial, and class groups. Accordingto WHO‟s (2015) comprehensive report on domestic violence, in different regions of the world, the range of lifetime prevalence of physical or sexual violence, or both, by an intimate partner was 15% to 71%, with estimates in most sites ranging from 30% to 60%. As for emotional abuse and controlling acts, across all countries, between 20% and 75% of women experienced one or more of these acts, most within the past twelve months.
Furthermore, according to the results of the most comprehensive national research on domestic violence against women released by Turkish Republic, Prime Ministry, Directorate General on the Status of Women (2009), domestic violence against women is a widespread problem in Turkey , as well. While the prevalence of physical and/or sexual violence experienced by married women was 42% nationwide, it varied between 26%and 57% across the regions. Moreover, emotional violence reported by women was 44%. The percentage was 69% when the acts of behaviors that control women’s daily activities were considered as emotional abuse. Reported economic violence acts like preventing women from working or causing women to quit the job were23%. The research also revealed that domestic violence has direct and indirect negative effects on physical and/or mental health of women in Turkey. Regardless of residence and background characteristics, women who had violence history reported negative physical and/or mental health problems two or three times more than women who had no violence history.
In addition to these, in a recent regional study (Akar et al., 2010) conducted in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey, 77.9% of women reported that they were exposed to at least one of the types of domestic violence during their lifetime. The most reported type of violence was economic violence (i.e., 60.4%). The prevalence of controlling behaviors, emotional violence, physical, and sexual violence were reported as 59.6%, 39.7%, 29.9%, and 31.3%, respectively. Domestic violence against women is a complex problem. There is no single definite factor to account for it (Harway&O‟Neil, 2001; UNICEF, 2000; APA, 2002). Thus, to study the subject with its multiple factors by multivariate approaches is highly suggested (Koss et al., 2004; APA, 2006, cited in APA, 2002).
Several researchers referred the causes of domestic violence to social, cultural, relational, biological, and psychological factors, and their interrelations
(Dutton, 2005; Harway&O‟Neil, 2001; Walker, 2009; APA, 2002; Watts & Zimmerman, 2002). According to UNICEF (2000), numerous complex and connected social and cultural factors lead women to be the victims. Such factors include socioeconomic forces, the family institution where power relations are enforced, fear of and control over female sexuality, belief in the inherent superiority of males, and legislation and cultural sanctions that have traditionally denied women and children an independent legal and social status. These factors are the manifestations of historically unequal power relations between men and women.
When the causes and risk factors of domestic violence against women are considered for Turkey, a similar frame is obtained. As discussed above, domestic violence against women is a kind of gender-based violence, and it mainly occurs in a specific context of patriarchy where controls of women are tolerated (Dobash&Dobash, 1979; Stacey, 1993; Anderson, 1997; Walker, 1999). The social context of families in Turkey is generally gender stereotyped and male dominated (Hortaçsu, 2007). Based on gender stereotypes and patriarchal values, husbands are expected to act in accordance with their powerful positions, and even behave violently to maintain that (Hortaçsu, Kalaycıoğlu, &Rittersberger-Tılıç, 2003). Cultural values in Turkey place the primary responsibility on women for keeping the family together. Hence, women are expected to endure, sacrifice, and suffer silently in order to keep their families together. From a similar standpoint, according to World Organization against Torture‟s Report on Violence against Women in Turkey, the unequal gender power relations created by discrimination in education, employment, and in political life render women vulnerable to violence, both in domestic and the community spheres in Turkey (OMCT, 2003).
In African societies, domestic violence is viewed as a private issue between spouses which does not call for legal intervention. Women continue to suffer in silence and even accept domestic violence in their marriages as part of their destiny (Curran and Bonthuys, 2004). This is rather unfortunate for such women to accept this cruelty as their destiny. On a daily basis in the Nigerian society, there is shocking news of domestic violence everywhere. If the news is not about the growing trend of “baby making factories” dotting the nooks and crannies of Nigeria, it may be about a husband killing the wife or wife killing the husband. Sometimes, it may be about a father violating his daughter by sexually abusing her. Nigerian women are beaten, raped and even murdered by members of their own family for a supposed transgression, which can range from not having meals ready on time to visiting family members without their husband‟s permission. Some women even experience acid attacks from their husbands or boyfriends which cause extreme pain or disfigurement, sometimes leading to the death of the victims (Africa Journal of Mission and ministry, 2016).
Domestic violence affects all social groups in the society and can consist of physical, sexual, emotional, economic and psychological abuse (America Psychiatric Association et al, 2005). Although men can also be victims of domestic violence (Denis 2014), women and children suffer it most. The prevalent culture of silence and stigmatization of victims of domestic violence hinders public acknowledgment of the problem. There is an urgent need to challenge the social prejudices and the institutional structures of the Nigerian society in order to protect women, not just from danger, but also from ridicule, fear and isolation.
In the Nigeria scenario, a consultant psychiatrist, DrMaymunahKadiri, said about 25 percent of women in Nigeria has to go through the ordeal of domestic violence. The worst forms of them are battering, trafficking, rape and homicide. While domestic violence is a violation of fundamental human rights, which the Nigerian constitution is against, there are no stringent enforcements. According to the cable, only 2 percent of such crimes are reported.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Most people assume domestic violence is a private, family matter and choose not to get involved. However, domestic violence impacts a community in surprising ways. Domestic violence tears the very fabric of a society by dismantling family unit and causing a ripple effect of repercussions that are felt for many years. One of most lasting consequences of domestic violence is the harm it does to family bonds. Children witnessing violence committed against their parent can find it difficult to trust adults in the future. It compromises their attachment to the person that should love and protect them, weakening the family unit. An estimated 3.3 million children are expose to violence against their mother or a female caretaker. These kids have high higher levels of anger, hostility, disobedience, and withdrawal. They have similar health issues as adults: anxiety, sleep disorders, mental health and behavior health issue. One can imagine the effect this has on the on school performance.
Adult victims suffer from a host of long-term health problems like heart disease, chronic pain, stress disorders, and arthritis, increasing health care costs for everyone. The effects of domestic violence cut across a wide range of issues and some studies estimated the total annual cost in the U.S. exceeds $12 billion. This includes health care costs for the victim‟s body and mind for conditions such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and dissociation (Essen, 2009). The effect of domestic violence doesn‟tstop at the front door. Too often, it spills into our community; into places that are supposed to be safe havens on their own. If a person is in an abusive relationship, we encourage him or her to strategically make others aware of their situation; particularly their children‟s school and their own workplace (Dutton &Golant 2012).
Going through the introduction of this work, it is observe that Women have been at the receiving end of violence in Nigeria. The Nigeria Watch database provided the opportunity to validate the extent to which these women have been victims of homicide and manslaughter, taking note that the word „women‟ is used generically for females. A number of factors are responsible for domestic violence against women: for example, domestic violence, rape, and sorcery, with domestic violence having the highest number of cases. However, the limitations to the study can permit only speculative deductions regarding geopolitical zones. The scope of this research will be limited to domestic violence in Benin City, Edo state.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this study is to determine the effect of domestic violence on marital relationship. Other objectives include;
To assess the knowledge and perception of violence against women in Benin City.
To ascertain the causes of domestic violence
To find out the effect of domestic violence on children academic performance.
To contribute to existing literature on domestic violence.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
There are numerous effect of domestic violence on the victim both physical and psychological, also on the children and as well as the society at large. More so, several questions come in view of the research study.
What is the awareness of the prevalence of domestic violence among women in Benin City?
What are the causative factors of domestic violence?
What are the effects of domestic violence?
Does domestic violence have effect on the children?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Domestic violence on marital relationship also known as intimate partner violence is a common problem in romantic relationships, with research suggesting that intimate partner violence between partners occurs in between one third and two thirds of young couples in dating, cohabiting, and newlywed relationship. Recent studies have established, moreover, that domestic violence is a strong prospective predictor of relationship dissolution (Zlotnick& Johnson, 2010).
In our society, many women are violently treated by their intimate partners, while they suffer in silence. In some cases, domestic violence leads to the death of these women. This should not be allowed to continue because women are crucial to the growth and development of any nation and the world at large. They are homemakers, custodians of social, cultural and fundamental valves of the society; and permanent change is often best achieved through them. Full community development is impossible without their understanding, cooperation and effective participation. Considering all these, women deserve better treatment but the opposite is usually the case. Domestic violence affects all social groups in the society and can consist of physical, sexual, emotional, economic and psychological abuse. The prevalent culture of silence and stigmatization of victims of domestic violence hinders public acknowledgment of the problem.
Despite continuous clamour for women‟s empowerment and emancipation, and the increasing involvement of women in politics and the socio-economic sectors, there is no doubt that women are being victimized and violated all over the world, especially in developing countries. Domestic violence against women is an important women‟s human rights concern that has overwhelming impacts on victims, families, and the society. Hence, it is vital to improve the awareness of the problem. Understanding the problem, so that developing assessments, preventions, and interventions will be means to combat domestic violence.
It is on this premise that this paper discusses the meaning of domestic violence, types of intimate partner violence, effects of domestic violence on marital relationship as well as their children. This paper also discusses causes and management of domestic violence against women. In conclusion, recommendations were made to eradicate this menace from the society. In Nigeria, however, there is little literature on domestic violence against women. The following research thus seeks to uncover the causes of the killing of women and provide a basis for more research in this field of study.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Domestic: relating to activities normally associated to the home.
Violence: action which causes destruction, pain, or suffering.
Domestic violence: this is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic setting such as in marriage or cohabitation.
Abuse: is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improper gain benefit.
Marital Relationship: the relationship between wife and husband.
Violation: breaking or dishonoring of law, or contravention of a duty or right. the act of violating someone or something
Violence Against Women: this refer to violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
Psychological Effect: of, pertaining to or affecting the mind especially as a function of awareness, feelings or motivation.
Physical Effect: refers to therapeutic effect or adverse effect of medical treatment on the body.
Stigmatization: the act of treating someone unfairly, regarding them as being bad or having something to be ashamed of.
Sexual Abuse: this is undesired sexual behaviour by one person upon another. Battering: violent physical abuse that usually involves the act of striking someone repeatedly or heavily in order to cause injury.