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POVERTY REDUCTION AND ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA; PROSPECT AND CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY ETSAKO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE, BENIN CITY

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:50
  • Methodology:Simple Percentage
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology Project Topics & Materials)
POVERTY REDUCTION AND ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA; PROSPECT AND CONSTRAINTS:
CASE STUDY ETSAKO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE, BENIN CITY.
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
   Poverty is one of the greatest problems confronting the continent of Africa and Nigeria in particular as a sovereign nation today. It is generally associated with the condition under which people live. Poverty is a relative concept, a condition that can only be defined by comparing, circumstances of one group of people or an entire economy with that of others. The problem of defining poverty arises since the measures one uses to compare a people defend solely on some assumptions about “adequate standard of living” which some enjoy and some others do not enjoy. If one acknowledges that poverty is primarily a relative concept, what then can “absolute poverty” be? Word Development Report (WDR) says that it is a condition experienced by about 750 million people.
   Absolute poverty describes a situation in which people barely exist, where the next meal may come from is a matter of life and death; as the cumulative effect of malnutrition and starvation give them the tragic distribution of having the highest mortality rate of any group in the world. It is believed that absolute poverty can be eradicated and that is the aim of poverty alleviation programme. The concept of poverty is a recurrently one, pertaining to pleasantly in Africa because it is linked closely with political, psychological, social as well as economic program, with great consequences for people all over the world.
   The bitter reality of Nigeria situation is not just that the poverty level is getting out of hand but that out of every 10 Nigerians more than four live in poverty conditions of extreme poverty of less than #320 per capital per month which barely provide for a quarter of the nutritional requirements of healthy living. Nigeria Human poverty Index (HPI-1) at 40.5 ranks 54 out of 77 development countries for which the index is available. The HPI index measures the extent of deprivation, the proportion of people who are total left out of progress. Nigeria ranks 146 out of total 176 countries in its Human Development in terms of life expectancy, education and real income per capital.
   Statistical data available indicate that by 1960 the poverty level in Nigeria affects about 15% of the population. It rose by 1980 to 28%. In 1985, the level of poverty was 46%. This dropped to 43% in 1992. the federal office of statistics in 1996 put the poverty level in Nigeria life expectancy at birth was 51 years, literacy rate was 44% and 70% of the population reside in the rural areas where the natural resources are located yet lack access to portable water, health care, facilities and electricity. The federal office of statistics states that poverty level in Nigeria varies from state to state in the country. This is because of the fact that economic and political mismanagement has become the order of the day. Political instability threatens the realization of national aspiration. External dependency has also created the international payment imbalances, huge debt and servicing obligation poor economic and political structures have impaired growth in education, transportation, electricity, health care, water supply, cultural communication, housing and social facilities.
   Poverty persists despite the government attempt by past government to find lasting solution to the problems of national economy and to raise the standard of Nigerians. Now, it should be the focus of the present administration to decide on which programme to design for fishing poverty. The national poverty alleviation programme has been selected for this task.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
   Poverty eradication was first considered by the Babangida led administration (1985-1993). Then, it was known as the National Directorate of Employment (NDE) with the aim of creating employment opportunities for the citizens and also to increase the standard of living of Nigerians. However, the programme has taken a step ahead of what it was during the Babangida regime. On assumption of office in 1999, president Obasanjo change the name to Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP). Secondly, he highlighted the aims and objectives of PAP to include the following:
To raise the standard of living of Nigerians.
To eradicate all forms of poverty within the Nigerian landscape.
To make Nigerians feel served in this discharge of their civil right.
   In contemporary terms, a giant Nation which lives within its means, such a nation is further described as one that has achieved industrial power, military strength, technological might, political and economic stability. Standard educational system, political liberty and a real opportunity for citizens to build a better life (Clinton, 1997).
   An important implication of the acquisition of the status of a great Nation is the ability to reduce or eliminate poverty. Also inclusive in the elimination list are the following completely:
Fear of retrenchment and premature retirement result in work inefficiency.
Lack of incentives and motivation to the workers brings about loss of interest on the job.
Political instability, Government in Africa is not often stable. Therefore, such a programmed economic situation will have no meaning in terms of high standard of living of Nigerians when it is being introduced newly.
That NAPEP has encouraged the device of innovation ways by Nigerians.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
  Nigeria is a country rich in both human and material resources and yet the majority of the citizens wallow in abject poverty. The federal government had at different times tackle the issue of poverty yet poverty still rear its ugly head.
   This research study is therefore an effort to know why these programmes have made an impact in solving the issue of poverty. Such programme is the National Poverty Alleviation Programme (PAP).
   The definition of poverty and its Assessment are addressed by salop (1992). According to him, the definition of poverty focuses on the question of who is poor? Poverty assessment covers the issues why are people poor? And also what should the government and policy makers do about it? To identify the poor, a poverty line is drawn reflecting the income level and a community of people whose income fall bellow the minimum acceptable of everyday life. the next steps briefly illustrate this.
   Depending on the availability of data in identifying the poor by age, sex and ethnic characteristics, where they live, how they fit into consumption and production activities of the economy. It summarizes the available social indicators for example infant mortality rate, literacy level, fertility and maternal mortality rates, etc and income indicators (Per Capital Income) etc.
   To determine the forces that may explain why people are poor, Salop for instance suggested a careful critical enquiring of the constraints to poverty eradication on assessment of the country’s circumstances of ineffectiveness in economic management in promoting effective labour intensive growth and evaluation of government effort to develop the poor human resources as well as close analysis of the extent of cost effectiveness of the social safety net (Salop, 1992).
   The constraints to this poverty alleviation programme are mainly:
Poverty instability
Improper allocation of resources
Ineffectiveness on the part of workers, which result in the non-attainment of specified field goods.
RESEARCH QUESTION
   For the purpose of this research to be achieved, the following reach question most be looked upon/at:
To ascertain who is poor?
To ascertain what should Government and policy maker do about the issue of poverty.
Why are people poor?
What constitutes poverty?
Does poverty exist in Nigeria?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY    
   The major purpose of this research study, is to investigate whether the poverty alleviation programme has achieved its full aim of making Nigeria the nerve center of not only west Africa and African countries but also the world at large especially the economic life of Nigerians.
   Other specific objectives of this study include:
To explain the relationship between low custom tariffs and poverty alleviation.
To find out whether adequate attention is given to the agricultural sector and small and medium scale enterprises (SMES), alleviate poverty.
To examine the correction between interest rate reduction and poverty reduction.
To find out how the provision of primary health care can alleviate poverty.
To investigate how the provision of employment and poverty alleviation.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
   This research work or study is meant to investigate the prospect and constraints of poverty alleviation in Nigeria with a particular reference to Estako West Local Government Area, of Edo State. This study will be of help to policy makers as well as cooperate bodies in the course of eradicating poverty in Nigeria. It is also important, that it appraise the present system methods of poverty alleviation in Nigeria.
   Moreso, this research study is also intended to fill the gap in knowledge, as it was designed in such away as to show how the various programme put in place to eradicate poverty have either been effective or not. It amongst other things, furnish student as well as the general public with relevant information on the prospect and constraints of poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
   The area that will be cover in this research study is the prospect and constraints of the reduction/alleviation of poverty in Nigeria. This will be done with a particular reference to Estako West Local Government Area, Edo State. More importantly, this study will cover the period of the established poverty alleviation programme in Nigeria to the time of this study.
DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
Poverty: - This refers to a low standard of living that last long enough to undermine the health, moral, and self-respect of an individual or group of individual. The term as used in this, study is relative to the general standard of living in the Nigerian society; the distribution of wealth, the status system, and social expectations.
Alleviation/Reduction: - These concepts are used synonymously in this study. They mean the making of a severe situation such as poverty less severe. In addition, it can mean the ease of the suffering of poverty.
Prospect: - This entails the various opportunities that the poverty alleviation programmes in Nigeria has provided for the higher standard of living for the Nigerian people. It also involve the possibilities of these programme to achieved what they are supposes to achieve.
Constraints: - These are limited forces that tend to frustrate the efforts of the government in the course of alleviating poverty in the country. It has to do with programmes by the government.

POVERTY REDUCTION AND ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA; PROSPECT AND CONSTRAINTS: CASE STUDY ETSAKO WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE, BENIN CITY

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Details

Type Project
Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0214
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 50 Pages
Methodology Simple Percentage
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0214
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 50 Pages
    Methodology Simple Percentage
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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