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THE HISTORICAL AND STRATEGIC CAUSES OF CONFLICTS WORLD: CASE STUDY SELECTED COUNTRIES IN AFRICA

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:92
  • Methodology:Primary and Secondary data
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Psychology Project Topics & Materials)
THE HISTORICAL AND STRATEGIC CAUSES OF CONFLICTS WORLD: CASE STUDY SELECTED COUNTRIES IN AFRICA
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The modern man lives in a complex and rapidly changing world filled with contradictions and the resultant conflicts. From the earliest known quest of man for freedom and peace, it has been insatiable, such that the world had continually witnessed dramatic social upheavals. While there is increase in the yearning for mutual understanding, there has been  increase in the alienation and hostility  between, within and among countries, and groups. Examples abound in Sudan, Liberia, Cote de voia, Middle East, among other.
    Scholars of strategic studies and relations are at consensus on the centricity of the problem of cnflict1 to world’s integration, cooperation and mutual existence. Conflict has been accorded much importance that today the stability of the international system for example, is usually defined in terms of its proximity or remoteness to the occurrence of large scale conflicts.
     As a matter of fact, the duo of war and peace has become so inconsistent both as values and policy options. War dates back to the dawn of mankind filled with history of warfare and armed conflicts. Man’s history of warfare span through the ancient days of Piched battled when wars are exclusives of Professional Soldiers, to the medieval and the present day history of nuclear fission which date back the days of World War II.
    Today in the World system, conflicts has become ubiquitous and permanently a recurring decimal in human relations. Through these conflicts can not be said to be necessarily a continuous phenomenon or even uniformly intense, societies do experience some cases of low-level muted conflicts.
According to Aja Akpuru Aja, “ conflicts may not necessarily be carried out in a form of physical combat ir engagement of military forces. Conflicts do go on in some subtle political, economic, psychological and other social forms that hardly raise apprehension to the majority except those directly involved2”
    Meanwhile, developments of the fast. Changing world system continually makes conflicts part of the system’s interactions. The concern however is the daily threat of destruction the world is facing due to the developments of the thermonuclear technology. This has brought to fore the issues of collective security across the globe. World leaders, Inter-governmental organization (IGOs) and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) are beginning to show genuine commitment to world peace. This commitment has given rise to disarmament, arms-restriction, arms-control, peace keeping, deterrence collective security, and other concepts and strategies for conflict prevention and management.
As Von Clauswitz noted: “even politics itself is fast becoming a process of resolving conflicts3”.
     So War do have some nuisance value in political disputes settlement. But the potency of the political formular is yet to be determined in Africa where political solution to conflicts are frequently disregarded or violated at will by feuding parties. This may have informed Arnold Wolfer’s position that:
Perharps what can be realistically hoped for in this age of nuclear technology is that the most destructive forms of conflicts will be successfully detered4. in like manner Obasi Igwe added that: the deterrence option is achievable when national government and other major actors opt for intelligible peace guided polices5.
    Meanwhile it is our conviction that it will be eldoradoic to expect that ll form of social conflicts will be successfully eliminated or deterred for ever. In line with this thought this study has concentrated on establishing the theoretical explanation to wars, in addition raise recommendations on conflict prevention and conflict management.
    As James Dougherty and Robert Pfaltz-graft Jnr. Argued, “conflicts are inevitable”… above all, conflict itself is a form of national political behaviour6.
    The threat of inflicting pain by resorting to violence is and will always be useful means of political bargaining within domestic and cross border politics. The threat of force demonstrate the seriousness of the dissatisfied party who employs it to set forth his demands against the other day, leaving him the choice to adjust or face the danger of escalated violence.
    For Africa to attain any level of development and sustain it from her current poverty and despair, the continent needs to seek peace and maintain peace. It’s the only condition that creates an investment friendly environment that, can attract foreign direct investment into the continent to drive development.
 As part of the objectives of the study is for us to explore the areas of unresolved questions about security and peace especially in Africa. This will imply us seeking answers to why or the challenges to collective security option, so as to enhance world and that of the African continent in particular.
STATEMENT F THE PROBLEM
Determining the reasons or causf war is the first objective of this study. But not without the conviction that conflicts has come to stay as an inalienable part of human relationships and existence. And also the conviction that no matter how people try conflicts cannot be successfully deterred or prevented at all times or for so long. No matter how we try some low-level muted conflicts if not of high scale mist occur and go on between  and among nations, within nations and between and among groups. So if the threat of war is real, we then seek to know:
What cause War?
How is conflict prevented and managed as well as pursuit of peace?
The challenges there are to security especially collective security?
And finally how is Africa putting up with  the challenges of security and collective security?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include:
Establishing the theoretical bases for the prevalence of conflicts in Africa#
Present incisive analysis of the theories in relation to world peace and conflict management.
Identify and analyze strategic issues of collective security with emphasis on African situation.
Establishing problems impending world peace and security.
Review previous conflicts prevention and management strategies and make fresh recommendations.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Since conflicts are inalienable part of human relationships, this study will be quite significant in the:
Establishment of the cause of conflicts, for a closer grasp and effective prevention and management .
The analysis of our world adrift in conflicts underscores the need for nations and multilateral institutions to evolve more effective strategies for conflict prevention and management.
The study emphasized on the need for collective security as a potent means of promoting peace and security in the world and Africa in particular.
Identifying the challenges to collective security in the world and Africa in particular puts the problems in clearer perspective for grasp.
Review of prevent and previous conflict prevention and management strategies provided us a clearer insight and the ability to now recommend other road maps to conflict prevention and management.
HYPOTHESES
Conflicts are cause by human nature and systems interactions
Power is a central factor in human conflicts.
Conflicts are inevitable part of human relationship, but can be prevented and managed.
African is yet to meet the challenges of collective security in the continent.
SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY
This study is exploring historical and strategic causes of conflicts world over with emphasis on theoretically backed evidence or explanations. It also considered strategic efforts to prevent world conflicts, deter it, manage it and encourage peace building from history and the themo nuclear age. And most importantly a special effort to put Africa in the picture especially collective security wise.
    The methodology is secondary data collective,  materials shall be sourced from published and unpublished texts, margazine, newspaper etc. the research materials came mostly from the institute of Policy and strategic studies Jos, University of Lagos Libraries, Ministry of Defense, National Libraries Lagos, the presidency Lagos, to mention but a few.
LIMITATION AND CONSTRAINTS
It will be a mark of intellectual honesty to admit that where this study fall short of expectation. It is to the limit of my intellectual capacity which could be improved on. But not to take away the fact that al that is required to do a thorough work has been put into the study, and  the result is a well researched work on causes of conflicts.
    The constrains that militated against the study was the initial demands of intellectual competence which we had to Summount by tasking our intellectual minds. Then were confronted with the problems of confirming the theoretical explanations especially as it apply to modern forms of conflicts. And this led to the problem of definition, select and interpretation of data, especially when war is a behavioural thin, relating to human nature which is unpredictable. Also due to the sensitive nature of the issue being studied, it as difficult accessing the materials
DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
Theories: In the study theory is used as sets of inter-related constructs or concept, definitions and propositions that cane present a systematic understanding of phenomena by specifying relations among the variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena.
Conflicts: Is used in the context as situations of conscious position by one group against another resulting into threats, injuring or eliminating the rival group. It is a war condition whether it is physical, psychological, economical, political or social.
Collective security: Is a strategic concept employed for a collective effort to effectively prevent, deter and manage conflict by comity of nations  through various strategies which may include, maintenance of pool of military force to deter aggression or enforce peace, rule of war or arms restriction, among others.
Security: Implies orderly existence of things in the polity or  society. It denotes absence of threats to lives and property and values of the people at the objective level. And absence of fear, anxiety, tension or the apprehension of being in danger at the subjective level.
Strategic analysis/relations: Is a combination of military art and thoughts on war and peace, it also approximate recent developments on issues of world peace and security as well as concepts relating to world system interactions.
Conflicts prevention and management: Are both idealist concepts targeting effective prevention or deterrence of conflict from occurring. The management  aspects involve conflicts containment through established norms and rules of war, arms control and above all keeping the peace and returning to peace after conflicts.
Power: Is the implicit and observable action that define the ability of a power wielder to influence the obedience of other14. It can be defined in terms of possession of control of means of violence, thus compelling obedience or the possession of reward for obedience, or but influencing obedience due to holders charismatic followership.
REFERENCES
Aja Apuru: Policy and Strategic Studies, Abakaliki; Willyrose and Apple seed Pub. Company . 1999. PP 1-19, 23-27.
John T. Rourke: International Politics on the Global Stage, U.S.A. Duskin Mcgraw Hill Companies, 1997. P. 337
Carl Von Clauswitz on war, Vols. I and II, Translated by Colonel J.J Graham, London Routladge and Kegan 1975. PP. 5.25.
Arnold Wolfers: Collective Security and the War in Korea, Yale review Xliii, June,  1954. P. 150
Obasi Igwe: A Modern Introduction to strategic studies, Abakaliki Willy Rose &appleseed Pub. Company 1999 PP. 1-19,23-27.
Jame Dougherty and Robert Pfaltzzgraff jr. Contending Theories of International Relations, New York Harpercolliing Publishers 1990. Pp. 187-188.
Rober Dahl: Modern Political Analysis New York Prentic Hall, 1984 PP. 3-4
James Dougherty & R. Pfaltzgraff: OP. CIT.
Lewis Coser Cited in Peter Benjolz: international game of Powers Berlin, Monton Publishers 1985. ( passim)
H.L. Nierburge: Cited in Dougherty and Pfaltzgraff jnr.: OP. cit (PASSIM)
 Kelman cited in Richerd Belts: Conflicts after the cold war, Arguments on cause of war and peace New York, Macmillian Publishers, 1993
J. Dougherty and Pfaltzgraff jnr. OP CIT.
Ibid
Jack H. Nageh: Descriptive Analysis of Powers; New Heaven, Yale University press, 1975, Passim.

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Details

Type Project
Department Psychology
Project ID PSY0049
Price ₦5,000 ($14)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 92 Pages
Methodology Primary and Secondary data
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Details

    Type Project
    Department Psychology
    Project ID PSY0049
    Price ₦5,000 ($14)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 92 Pages
    Methodology Primary and Secondary data
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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