SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND VIOLENT CULTURE AMONG STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, UGBOWO CAMPUS, BENIN CITY EDO STATE
The general objective of the study is to ascertain the sexual harassment and violent culture in Nigerian Universities, the study also investigate the following:Factual causes of sexual harassment, Effect of sexual harassment among Universities undergraduate, Reactions of Universities student about sexual harassment, Relationship between Universities employee that effect violent culture among student’s, Conduct of Universities undergraduate that influences sexual harassment and violent culture in the University settings.
The research method used or adopted was descriptive survey design to investigate what constitutes sexual harassment among the University of Benin students. The research work or study involve the distribution of questionnaire.The research instrument that was used for data collection in this study was a questionnaire.Data collection was also organized into frequency table, rations, graphs and charts. The findings was subjected to the chi-square test to accept or refuse the stated hypothesis.
In summary, the finding of the study include the following:
Respondents gave different definitions of sexual harassment ranging from physical, verbal to the more serious forms of sexual harassment.
There was gender difference in samples definitions.
Respondents’ experience of sexual harassment varies across gender.
There was gender difference in feeling bad if they encountered sexual harassment, a greater percentage of female than male participants indicated that they would be upset.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY - - - -
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM- - - -
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS - - - -
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY- - - - -
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY - -
1.6 OPERATIONALIZATION OF TERMS - -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK -
2.1.1 Sexual Harassment: -
2.2 REVIEW OF EMPERICAL LITERATURE
2.2.1 Sexual Harassment; Spectrum of Behaviour-
2.2.2 Blatant and Subtle Sexual Harassment
2.2.4 Attempted Rape
2.2.5 Stalking -
2.2.6 Victims of Sexual Harassment
2.3 REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORIES -
2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK -
2.4.1 Biological Models and Theory: The role of sex hormones:
2.5 hypothesis -
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF THE STUDY/SCOPE OF THE STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY - -
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.5 INTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION -
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION -
3.7 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS -
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 DATA PRESENTATION
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS - -
4.3 DISCUSION OF FINDINGS -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY -
5.2 CONCLUSION - -
Background to the Study
Sexual harassment is an unwelcome sexual advance, request for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature while violent culture is any intentional, non-accidental act of omission, on the parts of person’s interacting with student-aimed act injuring, harming or destroying the student.
Sexual harassment and violent culture among student cannot be overemphased; it has been an unfortunate part of educational experience, affecting student emotional well-being and their ability to succeed academically.
Sexual harassment was coined in the 1970’s and became commonly used in the 1980’s. The phrase itself originated in the United States, Canada and Europe to described the kinds of gender-based derogation and violence that occur in public places, notably, work places and educational institution. The emphasis was forms of gender-based violence that were not readily codified in criminal law (Phyllis, 1983) as such behaviour actually has damaging psychological and physical effects on the victims.
The U.S Department of Education and Office for Civic Right (OCR) (1997). Charged withing, interpreting, and enforcing OCR quid lines on sexual harassment recognition two types, quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. Quid pro quo harassment involves request of sexual favours generally by a school employee to a student in exchange for educational participation or benefit. Hostile environment entails harassing sexual conduct that is so severe, persistent or pervasive that it limits a student ability to participate on or benefit from educational activities.
In Nigeria, sexual harassment was noted in official document in 1981, in the report of cookey commission on salary and conditions of services of university staff, was concerned over allegations of female student failing their examination for reasons other than scholastic and felt that some machinery for addressing the problem should be put in place (Cookey Report, 1981). Since then nothing has been done to back-up the express concern. Women centered Notional Organization (WN) was one of the first to look up in the early 1980’s, also with no appreciation or progresses made. Again in 1989, the Minister of education then, circulated to act heads of educational institution to set up standing committees on sexual harassment. Victims, particularly student have been left to tackle the issues on individual basis.
Thus, it is only recently that attention is being paid to the problem. It appears to be pervasive particularly in the context of higher education. It is usually taken for granted and believed to be normal and not yet perceived as serious problem that should be tackled and urgently too.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It appears that sexual harassment in educational institution and workplaces can be understood and defined in many different ways making it even more complicated to prevent and address the issues. Its definitions is problematic, with no consensus as to what constitutes sexual harassment and violent culture, particularly in Nigeria were little National attention has been paid to the problem. Student are likely to be at a loss when a professor’s friendly concern starts to felt like a demand for sexual relationship that they do not want but are afraid to reject.
It is therefore through expedient to identify and define what constitutes sexual harassment and evolve the definition from among the targets of sexual harassment in educational institution. As real and vicarious victims of sexual harassment, and as a way of validating their definitions, it is necessary to determine their reaction to the harassing behaviours as define by them. As a real vicarious and potential target, they were likely to suggest solution to the problem.
The study therefore addresses the challenges of defining sexual harassment by requesting selected undergraduate to define and respond to a range of sexual harassment behaviour and violent culture among universities students, including their reaction to such and to proffer solution.
For the purpose of this research to be achieved, the following reach questions will be look upon:
What constitutes sexual harassment?
Are female students more likely to face sexual harassment than male students?
Do sexual harassment and violent culture affects the academic activities of student in the university.
What is the perceived extent of sexual harassment and sexual relationship between female and male faculty members in the University of Benin under study?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of the study is to ascertain the sexual harassment and violent culture in Nigerian Universities, the study will investigate the following:
Factual causes of sexual harassment
Effect of sexual harassment among Universities undergraduate
Reactions of Universities student about sexual harassment
Relationship between Universities employee that effect violent culture among student’s
Conduct of Universities undergraduate that influences sexual harassment and violent culture in the University settings
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research work or study will be of a benefit to the following individuals and institution; student, Universities staff employee, policy makers, legislative bodies and the public.
The study will be of benefits to policy makers that will guide in solution making which would hold out to the menace that is steadily eating our educational system like a cancer. Particularly, interest would be paid to the sexual harassment and violent culture being practice in selected Universities.
Moreso, it will also be of benefits to legislative bodies/judiciary heads for them to know that there should be a rule and regulations that guides the core of the Universities and also the employee staff of the Universities not to be responsible for an anti-social behaviour that affect the academic activities of the Universities school student.
The general public will become aware of the irritation to sexual harassment and its effect in the academic performance and development among Nigerian Universities school students.
Operationalization of Terms
Sex : This refers to the act or practice of sexual intercourse between a male and a female.
Harassment: it is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset, and it is characteristically repetitive.
Violence: This is an intentional, non-accidental act of omission, on the part of person’s or any other person’(s) interacting with student aimed at injuring or destroying the student.
Culture: Which is referred to as the way or pattern of life of an individual or group of people in relationship to custom, tradition, belief system that is passing from one generation to another?
University: Is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degree in variety of subject and provides both undergraduate education and post-graduate education.
Sexual Harassment: This has been defined as any planned, intentional, recurring or unwelcome verbal comments, gesture, or physical contacts of sexual, which is intended to place the recipient or receiver in an uncomfortable, embarrassing and undesired situation.
Violent Culture: Is an unpleasant way of behaviour that causes effect on people, country and individual, which is adapted from a generation to another, negatively.