THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF EARLY PREGNANCY ON THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter one Introduction Background of the study Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Research questions Significance of the study Scope or delimitation of the study Definition of terms Chapter two Literature review Chapter three Research methodology Introduction Research design Population of the study Sample and sampling procedure Instrumentation Administration of instrument Method of data analysis Chapter four Data analysis and interpretation Chapter five Summary, conclusion and recommendations Summary Conclusion Recommendation Suggestions for further research References Appendix- Questionnaire CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Early is a stage in life in which the individual (male or female) begins to develop sexual characteristics. It is usually between the ages of 13-19 years. At this stage in life, sexual desires are often at their peak. Early years are in what Bible calls “ the bloom of youth” a time when their sexual organs develop and they become capable of having children. Pregnancy begins at the moment a single spectrum fertilized a matured ovum (egg). In a normal ejaculation during sexual intercourse, about 200, 400 million sperm are deposited into the upper vagina, of this number; a few thousand remain within the virginal and die within 3 days. Only a few manage to make their way into the body of the uterus and move upward to the fallopian tubes where fertilization occurs. Only one sperm penetrates the membrane of the ovum to unit with the egg. When this occurs, a zygote is formed. The fertilized egg then makes its way down to the fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation. The journey to the uterus may result ton pregnancy. Moreso, the fact that most parents pay less attention to their children, coupled with the fact that earlyrs today are growing up in a culture in which peers, television and motion pictures, music and magazine often transmit either covert or overt message that unmarried sexual relationship (specifically those involving earlyrs) are common accepted and at times expected behaviour have contributed immensely to the moral decadence rampant among our earlyrs. Education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific clear information about the consequences of sexual intercourse (including pregnancy, sexual transmitted disease and psychological effects) are frequently not offered in the home, at school or in the community settings. Therefore, much of the sex education earlyrs receive filters through misinformed and/or unified peers. All these of course lead earlyrs into early dating behaviour (which lead to premarital sex) and early use of alcohol or other drugs, including tobacco products, which could lead to pregnancy. Research has shown that early dating at age 12 is associated with a 91% chance of being sexually involved before age 19 and dating at 13 is associated with a 36% probability of sexual involvement during adolescent or early (Mominic Marchiono, 2002). He went further to say that a sexually active early who does not use contraceptive has a 90% chance of becoming pregnant with in 1 years. My boyfriend was a cute guy, he had money and we could go places and have fun. When I missed my period, I realised something was wrong. How was I to tell mom? How could this happen to me? I was only 126 years old, and I didn’t know what to do “Nicole”. However, to be pregnant is a right that is supposed to be shared with ones life partners unfortunately, due to various reasons, it has been abused by our earlyrs today. Statistically four in ten girls become pregnant before 20 over 900-1000 earlyrs pregnancies annually in united states, but reflects some of the realities faced by pregnant earlyrs all over the world. And about 40% of early mothers are under 18 years of age (Awake, October 8 2004). This is as a result of various factors, such as the effects of broken homes, ignorance of the conservancies of sexual activities, lack of sdelf-respect on the part of some earlyrs to experience sex, as well as their failure to take necessary precautions (for sample, having sexual intercourse without adequate contraception. This in turn has lead to a high rate of school drop out, cycle of poverty, destitution, increased rate of abortion, emotional depression high level of delinquency, high mortality rate, reduced labour force as well as drop in the standard of living of the earlyrs involved =, their families and the society in general. It should be noted that both early mother and father may suffer economic hardship and fail to achieve their education and career goals, for example, at Texas in united states, early pregnancy and early marriage are reported reasons for leaving school, among many others, which are correlated to different specific aspects of social, economic and psychological needs that were not fulfilled (Galimbertti, Percy Anthonio, 2005). The related literature suggests that many students who dropout of school do not return. Chase-Lansdale and Coley (1998) suggest that if they decide to dropout, 30% return and eventually graduate. Those who could not complete their high school (secondary school) education often find themselves in a cycle of poverty out of which is hard to break. Previous studies have also found that by dropping out of school, thus disrupting their education, the school leavers face restrictions and disadvantages in the labour market. Low wages would diminish their likelihood of improving their standards of living (Galimbertti, Percy Antonio, 2005). Despite the continuous concern over the issue of early pregnancy and inspite of its captions in Egor Local government Area, only very few research investigations have been carried out to provide relevant social science and orthodox data or information for designing appropriate intervention policies and programmes to address the problem. It is therefore, imperative to advice earlyrs to abstain from sex and should be encouraged to postpone sexual involvement until marriage or until they are mature and skilled enough to handle sexual activities in a responsible manners as well as educate them on the adverse effects of sexual relationship/intercourse at early age. They should also be provided with information on pregnancy prevention if they become sexually active. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM It has been observed that early pregnancy has remained persistent in our local communities due to various contributing factors and has had negative imparts on the life of the earlyrs involved, for example, Spear (2001) affirms that early mothers are likely to complete high school education (i.e secondary school education) the non completion of a secondary school education limit the life earning potentials among the early population, which could perpetuate the cycle of impoverishment among them. Base on this, the study is therefore, concerned with the identification and assessment of the causes and effects of early pregnancy on the academic performance of the earlyrs involved as well as exploring various strategies through which it can be avoided, prevented or tackled in Egor local government area, so as to enable early mothers and fathers as well as sexually active earlyrs who would have dropped out of school due to early pregnancy to achieve their educational and career goals. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study is designed to achieve the following purpose. To identify and critically examine various factors that influence and contribute to the high rate of early pregnancy in Egor Locals government area. To ascertain the adverse effects of early pregnancy on the earlyrs and their academiuc performance as well as the local government area under investigation. To ascertain the extent to which broken homes, poverty, and adverse life circumstances, ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse all coercion and the changing attitude towards sex have influenced and contributed to early pregnancy in Egor Local Government Area under study. RESEARCH QUESTIONS Four research questions were raised to guide this study. They are as follows: 1. What are the causes of early pregnancy> 2. Do the changing attitude towards sex influence and contribute to the rate of early pregnancy? 3. Does early pregnancy affect their academic performance? 4. What are the necessary measures that must be taken to attack, prevent and reduce early pregnancy? BASIC ASSUMPTIONS This study is based on the following assumptions: That early pregnancy is an epidemic and involves a number of complex social and emotional issues. That there has been an increase in the rate of early pregnancy. That broken homes, and poverty and adverse life circumstances are not strange factors influencing and contributing to early pregnancy. That ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse and coercion as well as the changing attitudes towards sex can contribute to early pregnancy. That education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific, clear information about the consequences of sexual intercourse are beautifully not offered in the home, at school or in community setting. That it is possible to prevent and reduce early pregnancy in Egor local government area. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The use of any research study is to improve the area immediately concerned with the study and the society at large. The significance of the study can not be over-emphasized. This study identifies and examines performance in Egor local government area and it is therefore, hoped that the result of this study would help to achieve the following. To provide vital information on the possible causes and adverse effects on early pregnancy on their academic performance. Such information is very vital in providing lasting solution to the problems. To help parents and earlyr to clearly understand the adverse effects of early pregnancy with all of its implications. To provide adequate information to every school in the local government area under study, concerning the various methods that can be used to avoid or prevent early pregnancy which could lead to school dropout among the students (especially the sexually active ones). This will go a long way in enabling the students to accomplish that educational and career prospects. To assist Egor local government council (health and education divisions) in identifying and assessing the various contributing factors and the implications of early pregnancy in the local government area as well as enabling t hem to develop strategies for alleviating early pregnancy in the twenty-first (21st) century. To assist other researchers who may be interested in carrying out further investigation on this topic. To help policy planners and organizers to programmes for children and earlyrs to know the necessary factors to take into consideration when formulating and implementation policies and programme designed to sensitize the children and earlyrs about the implication/complications of early pregnancy. This study will also assist them in identifying the various models/approaches/strategies that can be adopted in attacking, reducing and preventing the occurrences of early pregnancy. Moreso, it would help to stimulate and draw government attention as well as private agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs), interest towards the issue of early pregnancy and how it can be tackled, prevented and reduced to a barest minimum. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of this study is limited to Egor Local Government Area. To this end, interview and questionnaire will be used to collect information from the general public in determining the factors responsible for the increase in early pregnancy. It will also focus on the implications of early pregnancy on the individuals involved and their academic performance as well as the society. DEFINITION OF TERMS In the course of this study, a number of terms were employed. Some of the terms will now be defined for the purpose clarity and understanding. They are as follows: Pregnancy: the state of being pregnant. Earlyr: A person who is between 13 and 19 years old. Early pregnancy: pregnancy occurring in women age 19 and/or younger. Ovum: A female cell of a human being, animal, or plant that can develop into a young human being or animal or plant when fertilized. Fertility: The state of bring fertile, that is the ability to produce offspring or power of production. Sexual intercourse: the physical ability of sex, usually describing the act of a man putting his penis inside a woman Virginia. Contraception: The practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant. It is also the method of preventing conception. Uterus: the organ in women and female animal in which babies develop before they are born. Ejaculation: the act of ejaculating, the moment when sperm comes out of mans penis.