THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON THEIR ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

(Education)

THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON THEIR ACADEMIC

PERFORMANCE IN EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT

          This project was carried out in order to identify and examine the causes and effect of teenage pregnancy on their academic pursuit, including its general and social implications in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Chapter one focuses on introduction (background to the study), statement of problem purpose of study. Research question basic assumption, scope of the study limitation of the study, and definition of terms. However, apart from the general introduction in the first chapter, chapter two deals with the review of related and relevant literatures. This chapter will enable the reader to gain an insight into the concept of teenage pregnancy, teenage pregnancy, its causes its general and social  consequences.  Chapter three involves the research method. The method used for data collection were questionnaire and oral inter view and method of data analysis through frequency counts and simple percentages.

Chapter four talks about the detail analysis of data or presentation and discussion of results. It was discovered that teenage pregnancy affect the academic and career prospects of the teenage involved. Chapter five consists of summary, conclusion, recommendation and references in conclusion it was obvious that a teenage student who become pregnant is not likely to complete her education. And the non-completion of a university education could limit her life earning potential which could inturn make her child to live in a cycle of poverty out of which is hard to broke. In order to prevents attack and reduce the rate of teenage pregnancy, it was recommended that teenagers should be given abstinence education as well as sex education.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Chapter One     

Introduction

Background of the study

Statement of the problem

Purpose of the study

Research questions

Significance of the study

Scope or delimitation of the study

Definition of terms

Chapter Two    

Literature review

Chapter Three

Research methodology

Introduction

Research design

Population of the study

Sample and sampling procedure

Instrumentation

Administration of instrument

Method of data analysis

Chapter Four 

Data analysis and interpretation

Chapter Five

Summary, conclusion and recommendations

Summary

Conclusion

Recommendation

Suggestions for further research

References

Appendix- Questionnaire

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

          Teenage is a stage in life in which the individual (male or female) begins to develop sexual characteristics. It is usually between the ages of 13-19 years. At this stage in life, sexual desires are often at their peak. Teenagers are in what Bible calls “ the bloom of youth” a time when their sexual organs develop and they become capable of having children.

          Pregnancy begins at the moment a single spectrum fertilized a matured ovum (egg). In a normal ejaculation during sexual intercourse, about 200, 400 million sperm are deposited into the upper vagina, of this number; a few thousand remain within the virginal and die within 3 days. Only a few manage to make their way into the body of the uterus and move upward to the fallopian tubes where fertilization occurs. Only one sperm penetrates the membrane of the ovum to unit with the egg. When this occurs, a zygote is formed. The fertilized egg then makes its way down to the fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation. The journey to the uterus may result ton pregnancy.

          Moreso, the fact that most parents pay less attention to their children, coupled with the fact that teenagers today are growing up in a culture in which peers, television and motion pictures, music and magazine often transmit either covert or overt message that unmarried sexual relationship (specifically those involving teenagers) are common accepted and at times expected behaviour have contributed immensely to the moral decadence rampant among our teenagers. Education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific clear information about the consequences of sexual intercourse (including pregnancy, sexual transmitted disease and psychological effects) are frequently not offered in the home, at school or in the community settings. Therefore, much of the sex education teenagers receive filters through misinformed and/or unified peers.

          All these of course lead teenagers into early dating behaviour (which lead to premarital sex) and early use of alcohol or other drugs, including tobacco products, which could lead to pregnancy. Research has shown that early dating at age 12 is associated with a 91% chance of being sexually involved before age 19 and dating at 13 is associated with a 36% probability of sexual involvement during adolescent or teenage (Mominic Marchiono, 2002). He went further to say that a sexually active teenage who does not use contraceptive has a 90% chance of becoming pregnant with in 1 years. My boyfriend was a cute guy, he had money and we could go places and have fun. When I missed my period, I realised something was wrong. How was I to tell mom? How could this happen to me? I was only 126 years old, and I didn’t know what to do “Nicole”.

          However, to be pregnant is a right that is supposed to be shared with ones life partners unfortunately, due to various reasons, it has been abused by our teenagers today. Statistically four in ten girls become pregnant before 20 over 900-1000 teenagers pregnancies annually in united states, but reflects some of the realities faced by pregnant teenagers all over the world. And about 40% of teenage mothers are under 18 years of age (Awake, October 8 2004). This is as a result of various factors, such as the effects of broken homes, ignorance of the conservancies of sexual activities, lack of self-respect on the part of some teenagers to experience sex, as well as their failure to take necessary precautions (for sample, having sexual intercourse without adequate contraception.

This in turn has lead to a high rate of school drop out, cycle of poverty, destitution, increased rate of abortion, emotional depression high level of delinquency, high mortality rate, reduced labour force as well as drop in the standard of living of the teenagers involved, their families and the society in general. It should be noted that both teenage mother and father may suffer economic hardship and fail to achieve their education and career goals, for example, at Texas in united states, teenage pregnancy and early marriage are reported reasons for leaving school, among many others, which are correlated to different specific aspects of social, economic and psychological needs that were not fulfilled (Galimbertti, Percy Anthonio, 2005). The related literature suggests that many students who dropout of school does not return.

Chase-Lansdale and Coley (1998) suggest that if they decide to dropout, 30% return and eventually graduate. Those who could not complete their high school (secondary school) education often find themselves in a cycle of poverty out of which is hard to break. Previous studies have also found that by dropping out of school, thus disrupting their education, the school leavers face restrictions and disadvantages in the labour market. Low wages would diminish their likelihood of improving their standards of living (Galimbertti, Percy Antonio, 2005).

Despite the continuous concern over the issue of teenage pregnancy and inspite of its captions in Egor Local government Area, only very few research investigations have been carried out to provide relevant social science and orthodox data or information for designing appropriate intervention policies and programmes to address the problem. It is therefore, imperative to advice teenagers to abstain from sex and should be encouraged to postpone sexual involvement until marriage or until they are mature and skilled enough to handle sexual activities in a responsible manners as well as educate them on the adverse effects of sexual relationship/intercourse at early age. They should also be provided with information on pregnancy prevention if they become sexually active.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

          It has been observed that teenage pregnancy has remained persistent in our local communities due to various contributing factors and has had negative imparts on the life of the teenagers involved, for example, Spear (2001) affirms that teenage mothers are likely to complete high school education (i.e secondary school education) the non completion of a secondary school education limit the life earning potentials among the teenage population, which could perpetuate the cycle of impoverishment among them.

          Base on this, the study is therefore, concerned with the identification and assessment of the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy on the academic performance of the teenagers involved as well as exploring various strategies through which it can be avoided, prevented or tackled in Egor local government area, so as to enable teenage mothers and fathers as well as sexually active teenagers who would have dropped out of school due to teenage pregnancy to achieve their educational and career goals.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          This study is designed to achieve the following purpose. To identify and critically examine various factors that influence and contribute to the high rate of teenage pregnancy in Egor Locals government area.  To ascertain the adverse effects of teenage pregnancy on the teenagers and their academic performance as well as the local government area under investigation.

          To ascertain the extent to which broken homes, poverty, and adverse life circumstances, ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse all coercion and the changing attitude towards sex have influenced and contributed to teenage pregnancy in Egor Local Government Area under study.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

          Four research questions were raised to guide this study. They are as follows:

1.            What are the causes of teenage pregnancy>

2.            Do the changing attitude towards sex influence and contribute to the rate of teenage pregnancy?

3.            Does teenage pregnancy affect their academic performance?

4.            What are the necessary measures that must be taken to attack, prevent and reduce teenage pregnancy?

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS  

          This study is based on the following assumptions:

          That teenage pregnancy is an epidemic and involves a number of complex social and emotional issues.

          That there has been an increase in the rate of teenage pregnancy.

          That broken homes, and poverty and adverse life circumstances are not strange factors influencing and contributing to teenage pregnancy.

          That ignorance of the consequences of sexual activity, sexual abuse and coercion as well as the changing attitudes towards sex can contribute to teenage pregnancy.

          That education about responsible sexual behaviour and specific, clear information about the consequences of sexual intercourse are beautifully not offered in the home, at school or in community setting.

          That it is possible to prevent and reduce teenage pregnancy in Egor local government area.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 

          The use of any research study is to improve the area immediately concerned with the study and the society at large. The significance of the study can not be over-emphasized. This study identifies and examines performance in Egor local government area and it is therefore, hoped that the result of this study would help to achieve the following.

          To provide vital information on the possible causes and adverse effects on teenage pregnancy on their academic performance. Such information is very vital in providing lasting solution to the problems.

          To help parents and teenager to clearly understand the adverse effects of teenage pregnancy with all of its implications.

          To provide adequate information to every school in the local government area under study, concerning the various methods that can be used to avoid or prevent teenage pregnancy which could lead to school dropout among the students (especially the sexually active ones). This will go a long way in enabling the students to accomplish that educational and career prospects.

          To assist Egor local government council (health and education divisions) in identifying and assessing the various contributing factors and the implications of teenage pregnancy in the local government area as well as enabling t hem to develop strategies for alleviating teenage pregnancy in the twenty-first (21st) century.

          To assist other researchers who may be interested in carrying out further investigation on this topic.

          To help policy planners and organizers to programmes for children and teenagers to know the necessary factors to take into consideration when formulating and implementation policies and programme designed to sensitize the children and teenagers about the implication/complications of teenage pregnancy. This study will also assist them in identifying the various models/approaches/strategies that can be adopted in attacking, reducing and preventing the occurrences of teenage pregnancy.

          Moreso, it would help to stimulate and draw government attention as well as private agencies, non-government organizations (NGOs), interest towards the issue of teenage pregnancy and how it can be tackled, prevented and reduced to a barest minimum.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

          The scope of this study is limited to Egor Local Government Area. To this end, interview and questionnaire will be used to collect information from the general public in determining the factors responsible for the increase in teenage pregnancy.

          It will also focus on the implications of teenage pregnancy on the individuals involved and their academic performance as well as the society.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

          In the course of this study, a number of terms were employed. Some of the terms will now be defined for the purpose clarity and understanding. They are as follows:

Pregnancy: the state of being pregnant.

Teenager: A person who is between 13 and 19 years old.

Teenage pregnancy: pregnancy occurring in women age 19 and/or younger.

Ovum: A female cell of a human being, animal, or plant that can develop into a young human being or animal or plant when fertilized.

Fertility: The state of bring fertile, that is the ability to produce offspring or power of production.

Sexual intercourse: the physical ability of sex, usually describing the act of a man putting his penis inside a woman Virginia.

Contraception: The practice of preventing a woman from becoming pregnant. It is also the method of preventing conception.

Uterus: the organ in women and female animal in which babies develop before they are born.

Ejaculation: the act of ejaculating, the moment when sperm comes out of mans penis.

      TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

For more project materials

Log on to www.grossarchive.com

Or call

+2348130686500

+2348093423853

 

 

500
Leave a comment...