ATTITUDE OF TEACHERS TOWARDS POSTING TO RURAL AREAS:
A CASE STUDY OF OKITIPUPA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE
This study was designed to examine the role of the parent teacher association (PTA) in the development of primary schools in Okitipupa Local Government Area of Ondo State. To achieve this, the researcher utilizes the questionnaire as the instrument for eliciting responses from the respondents, oral interview were conducted with the respondents. Findings revealed that parent teachers association (PTA) has played a crucial role in the development of schools teachers association has played a based on findings recommendations were made. This is with a view of enhancing the role of parent teachers association, most in Ondo State of Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Definition of terms
Review of related literature
Origin and growth of PTA
Moral and cultural development
Characteristics of samples
Collection of data
Analysis, interpretation and discussion of data
Summary, conclusion and recommendations
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Which ever way one wants to define education, whether literal or vocational, it is regarded as an instrument for change and resources for development (N. P. E., 2004). According to Fagana in Urevbu’s foundation and methods of education (1991) he noted that the introduction of Christianity was common strategy that as soon as a station was a school, to which they tried to recruit young ones who would become easily attracted. The schools were to train manpower who would be more easily attracted. The schools were to train manpower who would successfully serve as catechists, interpreters, clerks, court messengers etc. to enhance their evangelical activities.
The first mission nary school was established in Badagry, a rural area in Lagos State in 1842 by Thomas Berch Freeman of the Western Methodist Missionary Society. Since the missionaries were in control over these schools before government involvement, schools in the rural areas were adequately staffed and teachers were doing their jobs effectively. These rural areas are villages or communities characterized by the smallness of population, poor housing or accommodation. The existence of untarred roads and low level of commercial activities. The occupation of the people is basically agriculture and they are handicapped by poor health care services, non availability of potable water, no electricity, inadequate transportation and communication system.
With the above characteristics plaguing the rural areas, teachers posted to such areas protest their posting in favour of urban centres that are characterized with basic facilities not found in the rural areas. Some teachers even give flimsy excuses such as family separation, road hazard and medical check up to remain in urban centres through connection or lobbying. This has led to mass rural to urban centres, thereby creating vacuum in the number of teachers left to teach the less privileged students in the rural schools. The state government with particular to Edo state imposed a three year compulsory rural service for newly employed teachers before they are transferred from one school to another or from rural area to urban centres. This measure had not work` out to remain in urban centres all their basic and social amenities are available. To compound this problem, those who are fortunate to be in the urban centres develop the sit tight syndrome.
The question now is that should we allow the rural schools to be phased out because of negative attitude of teachers towards them or will the government create a conducive and enabling environment in the rural areas to attract teachers to their schools? It is therefore pertinent to identify the attitude of teachers towards teaching in the rural areas as a case study.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
There is no gain saying the fact that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers (N. P. E., 2004). Education as a veritable instrument for change unlocks the doors to modernization and the teacher undisputedly holds the keys to these doors. The child, though seen as a focal point or centre of the facilitator that translates educational policies with practice and programmes into actions and consequently could best be described as a point of the education process. The teacher is a crucial component of any educational system because he is the main determinant of the quality of the system (Okokoje, 2003).
A lot of variables have contributed to the change and modification in attitudes of teachers towards teaching in the rural schools. Since there are inadequate or lack of basic facilities in the rural areas, teachers find it difficult to go there to teach and those who are there by compulsion without alternative posting do so with mixed feelings and as a result the quality of the rural children’s education is adversely affected that poor teaching produces poorly educated children and this is caused by the equitable distribution of amenities are staffed where as the schools are neglected and poorly staffed. Therefore, the problem of this study is to investigate why teachers name negative attitude towards teaching in rural areas. The researcher intends to provide answers to the following questions.
1) Does the environment have any influence on the attitude of teachers towards rural posting?
2) Does the teacher’s academic qualification have any effect on his/her attitudes to rural posting?
3) Do the years of experience of teachers have any influence on the attitude of teachers to rural posting?
4) Does the marital status of a teacher affect his/her attitude of rural posting?
5) Does the sex of a teacher affect his/her attitude to rural posting?
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to examine the attitude of teachers towards teaching in the rural areas. Since the teachers` posted to the rural areas develop some mixed feelings, there is danger of job or duties. According to the National Policy on Education (N. P. E., 1989) it stated that the Nigerian philosophy of education is based on the integration of the individuals into a sound and effective citizens and equal educationa1sl opportunities for all citizens of the nation at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels both inside and outside the formal school system.
But the refusal of teachers to accept rural posting is now creating disparity between the rural as urban types of education and as a result encouraging inequality in education. It becomes desirable to earn the possibility of main training some kind of balance between those areas most especially as it concerns education. The study will help to find solution to the negative attitude of teachers towards rural posting.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of this study would help the teachers to exchange their attitude towards teaching in the rural schools. It is also significant to the ministry of education in identifying the causes of teaching in the rural areas and to proffer appropriate solution to the ugly trend. It would also help the government to know the reason why teachers have negative attitude towards teaching in the rural schools and find a lasting solution to it. Many researchers, rural communities and the general public will also benefit from the study.
ASSUMPTION OF THE STUDY
The following assumptions are made in this study;
1) The teachers in the rural and urban areas under study are reliable and dependable source of information and the research would enjoy some measures of cooperation and confidence from them.
2) The result obtained from the sample could be generated in rural areas of Edo State.
3) Transportation, incentives, condition of service and poor living conditions etc. effectively in the rural areas.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to public junior secondary government area of Edo state and all the selected schools whether.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Attitude: this refers to the opinion and feelings that teachers usually have about rural posting. It could be negative or positive.
Professional teachers: these are teachers that have the necessary teaching qualifications and are certified to impact knowledge to learners. They includes Nigeria Certificate in Education (N. C. E.), masters in education (M. Ed.) and post graduate diploma in education or technical education (P. G. D. E) or (P. G. D. T. E)
Auxiliary teachers: these are teachers who do not have the necessary teaching qualification but find ways into the classroom to impact public schools. These are school that are managed and funded by the government, state and federal.
Rural areas: these are villages or communities characterized by the smallness of their population, poor accommodation or housing existence of untarred roads, low level of commercial availability of potable water and electricity, inadequate transportation and communication system.
Urban areas: these are towns or cities that have the opposite characteristics of the rural areas.
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