THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA IN URBAN DEGRADATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION IN NIGERIA
(A STUDY OF NSUKKA URBAN OF ENUGU STATE)
This project examines the roles of the media on enhancement of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nigeria. It also examine the environmental management problems with its implications on human health. The objectives of the study is to examine the causes, effects and solutions of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nigeria, especially Nsukka urban of Enugu State. The method of research used was survey method as it is relevant in testing the opinion of the public in a matter of this kind. It is therefore expected that the background, literature review will help to know how to protect the environment from urban degradation and reduce urban sanitation to the barest minimum.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of problems
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Questions
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.8 Scope of the Study
1.9 Limitation of the Study
1.10 Definition of Terms
2.1 Sources of Literature Review
2.2 Review of Liberated Literature
2.3 Summary of Literature
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Research Method
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Area of Study
3.4 Research Population
3.5 Research Sample
3.6 Sampling Techniques
3.7 Instrument of Data Collection
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
3.10 Expected Results
Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/ Hypotheses
4.3 Discuss of Results
Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary of Findings
5.4 Recommendations for Further Studies
1.1 Background of the Study
The study of the media and the society has no limit as it is an already occurrence. According to Agbo (2003); mass media have contributed a lot in the development of our country. This background of study covers a wide range of issues in the society. Nwogbunyama (2010:76) adds that “the media are interwoven with the society that neither of them can exist without the other.
This study will address the functions which the mass media perform in order to benefit the individual and other members of the society. These functions includes:
i. Information: This is the constant stream of information about events in the society. Among the positive consequence of this function is the guidance which it gives to the individual in the his/her daily lives.
ii. Socialization: The media through socialization, help people to operate as an effective member of the society and fosters social cohesion and awareness thereby permitting active involvement of the individuals in public life.
iii. Education: Mass media help in transmission of knowledge so as to foster intellectual development, the formation of character and the acquisition` of skills and capacity at all stages of life.
iv. Entertainment: The media do entertain through the diffusion of its sounds and images of drama, dance, Arts, literature music, comedy, cartoons, sports, games etc for personnal enjoyment.
The other major functions of the media are as follows:
Surveillance of the society
Interpretation of event meaning
Socialization of individuals into the cultural setting.
Therefore, the mass media changes the perception of the society towards enhancing urban degradation and environmental sanitation especially to the peop0le of Nsukka Urban of the state. According to Ugorji (2004:18), “the respect for the life and good health imposes on us the service obligation of promoting a healthy environment, taking adequate care of our economy that, sustains life and consequently avoid or minimize environmental pollution and degradation which endangers life and health.
Ugoechi (2000), under education and enlightenment campaign of the media, the hazards associated with environmental pollution should be given extensive and wide publicity through the media. The government on the other hand, should embark on service enlightenment campaign to ensure that information on how best to dispose waste are handy, particularly among the dwellers of the Nsukka urban areas. Ugoechi stated again that laws should be put in place to catch up with defaulters that litters the environment. Incinerators and dustbins are to be provided and put in strategic positions so that wastes and refuses are not littered in our environment. To him, environmental workers and their staff are to be regularly paid to prompt speedy evacuation of these wastes.
Osogbu Stephen (2007:62), said that “due to rapid urbanization in the past three decades especially in Nsukka urban, water management has become a major problems, mans unguided development and ineffective. Waste management in also a problem and so result in a degraded environment and outbreak of diseases such as cholera, diahoearr, dysentery, malaria etc.
As it stands, effective waste management in Nsukka urban needs to be addressed urgently to achieve a sound sustainable environment. In order to achieve this, the environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban will through the media involve the government and other NGO’s in the campaign against indiscriminate dumping of refuse in the environment, illegal erection of buildings in approved sites and other activities of man in the environment. In order to achieve this environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban will through the media involve the government and other NGO’s in the campaign against indiscriminate dumping of refuse in the environment, illegal erection of buildings in unapproved sites and other activities of man in the environment.
1.2 Statements of the Research Problems
Nsukka Urban is fast loosing its long held prestige as the cleanest city in the state as almost all its well constructed roads and streets are now being littered with refuse dumps and as a result, poses threat to health and life of the citizens and also affect its aesthetics values.
The problems of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban have led to atmospheric pollution, water pollution, offensive odour, accidents and traffic congestions and general degradation of the environment. This is an eye sore to our prestige as waste dumps are becoming homes for armed robbers and other street urchins and finally gives rise to global warming. The regimes of Nsukka LGA chairmen in 1999-2003,2003-2007,2007-2009 failed to provide avenue for refuse disposals in the urban city of Nsukka. This failed effort by the local government bosses enabled our streets to be unpassable as heavy dumps of refuse are heaped at every corner. the council failed also to provide a constructed abattoir meat sellers ,construst well graded roads with gutters. These areas, includes, the UNN second gate, Onuiyi axis of Nsukka, the Ugwuawarawa link road to Alor and host of other unkept portions of Nsukka with heavy refuse dumps.
The main abattoir in Nsukka was situated at the centre of the Ogige market thereby constituting health hazards to the marketers.
In Nsukka, there are unapproved building being erected at every nook and cranny of Nsukka and the council chairmen under such regimes failed to issue order for demolition of such illegal buildings as these buildings deface the entire look of Nsukka Urban and again block the free flow of running water during rainfalls. There are uncleaned gutters that are being filled up with refuses which the environmental workers do overlook in performing their functions. The council boss also failed in actualizing the dreams of Nsukka in becoming the cleanest city in Enugu State. They did more harm than good to Nsukka urban in maintaining cleanness of the city.
In 2003, the council boss started the beautification of the areas which he did not accomplish and this has made Nsukka to look odd and defaced due to failed effort of the boss. There are unfinished road projects, markets and other social amenities which have helped in making the Nsukka urban look so dirty. The failed efforts by the past council chairman did more harm than good in enhancing urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban. This contributed immensely on the poor condition that the Nsukka urban is facing in terms of urban cleanness.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aims or objectives of this study is to argue for the adoption of urban sanitation in managing the environment especially the Nsukka urban. The objectives are to:
i. Examine the issue of Urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban and negative effects on human health.
ii. To identify challenges facing environmental management and proffer solution.
iii. To examine the gains, in having a good and effective urban sanitation.
1.4 Significance of the study
This research work is done in order to alert the society through the media on the degradation and environmental sanitation especially in Nsukka Urban and the impact it has on the healthy and well being of the state in particular and the country in general.
The study or research will also enlighten the people through the media and its practitioners, the government and the ESWAMA on their roles in maintaining urban and environmental cleanness.
The cleanness of the environment will improve the living standard of the people by avoiding the spread of communicable diseases which includes cholera chicken pox, dysentery, diarrhea etc to residents of Nsukka urban. There will be proper maintenance of the environment if these requires are not dumped or littered indiscriminately in the environment. This will equally reduce the rate of defacement of the environment in Nsukka urban.
Finally, the cleanness will increase or improve the free flow of traffics as there will be low or little dumps of refuse in our environment.
The beneficiaries of such cleanness includes market women, children, residents of Nsukka urban, students, artisans, drivers and environmental managers.
1.5 Research Questions
The research questions are mainly focused on the role of mass media in enhancement of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka. The functions are:
i. How do you view the role of the media in the enhancement of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka?
ii. Are you aware of the mass media messages on the enhancement of urban degradation and environmental cleanness.
iii. What are the implications of health hazards of a dirty environments to lives of Nsukka urban?
iv. To what extent do citizens support the improvement of environmental cleanness by paying their taxes or sanitation levies.
v. Can the problem of indiscriminate refuse dumps in Nsukka urban be solved through the mass media campaign.
1.6 Research Hypothesis
The research hypothesis of this study will be based on the research questions.
H1: The mass media play significance role in enhancing urban degradation and environmental cleanness in Nsukka.
H0: Mass media do not play any role in enhancing urban degradation and environmental, sanitation in Nsukka urban.
H2: The health implication of dirty environments to the lives of Nsukka urban are not dangerous?
H0: The health implication of dirty environments to the lives of Nsukka urban are dangerous?
H3: Are people aware of the media messages on the need to enhance urban degradation and environmental sanitation.
H0: Are People not aware of the media messages on the need to enhance urban degradation and environmental sanitation.
H4: Citizens support the urban cleanness through the payment of taxies.
H0: People do not support sanitation through their inability to pay their sanitation levies and taxes.
H5: Do Media campaign help to solve the indiscriminate dumping of refuse in Nsukka urban
H0: Media campaign cannot solve the indiscriminate dumping of refuse in Nsukka urban.
1.7 Theoretical Framework
According to Agbo and Ukozor (2004:40) a theory can be said to be a formed set of ideas that intends to explain why something happens or exists.
Bower and Contright (1984:13) defined theories “as set of statements asserting relationships among classes of variables”.
Little John, (1996:3) defines theories as a scholars best representation of some of affairs based on systematic observation” Griffin (1994) also takes this broader view writing that a theory is an idea that explains an event or behaviors’.
Mark Eze (2011:66) also sees a theory “as a systematic and logical statement of how phenomena are related to one another.”
For the purpose of this study two theories of mass communication shall be considered appropriate for the study. They are as follows:
i. Social Responsibility Theory: According to Agbo and Okoro (2003:23) this theory of mass communication states that the media should fulfill certain obligation which are to be met by their new reports and interpretation on some important issues in the society. Here, healthy living of the people is not left out of this social responsibility of the media therefore, the media should sensitize the people on how best to manage their waste in their immediate surroundings.
ii. Agenda Setting Theory: The agenda setting theory is mass media will be the foundation stone in assessing the role of mass media in enhancement of urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka urban.
Agenda setting according to Agbo and Okoro (2003:31) is that the media has the power to set and determine what we are thinking about by pre-determining what issues are regarded as important in our society. Therefore, the media has the power to change people behavior and attitude towards the issues of urban sanitation enhancement and environmental degradation by frequently reporting and interpreting the issues of enhancement of urban sanitation and degradation and how it affects human health.
The agenda setting theory is based on the study conducted by walter Lippaman in 1992. He stated that the media are responsible for the picture in our head.
According to Ndolo (2005:39) “agenda setting theory explain the effects of mass communication on culture and society. It describes the power influence of the media, the ability to tell what issues are important that the media help put picture in our heads.
Baran (1999:327) states that “in choosing and displaying news, editors, newsroom staff and broadcaster, play an important part in shaping the important issues that are related to the society. It could be said that through, agenda setting theory, public related is used as a channel to mobilize, sensitize, socialize, create awareness as well as inform residents of Nsukka Urban on the enhancement of urban degradation and environmental sanitation.
The agenda setting theory proposes that the public agenda or what kind of things people discuss, think and worry about and sometimes press for legislation is powerfully shaped and directed by what the new media choose to publicize (Lavson 1988). This mean that if the broadcast media decide to give the most time and space to coverage of developmental programmes in the community, the issue will become the most important item on the audience agenda.
The agenda setting theory examines the relationships between media practitioners and their audience in the relative importance of news topic:
1.8 Scope of the Study:
The study or research covers mostly areas in Nsukka Urban and its surrounding environment which includes Alor Uno, Obimo, Opi, Ede-Oballa Nguru, Edem and Obukpa, Lejja Communities.
1.10 Definition of Terms (Conceptual / Operational
i. Role: The proper function or behavior of something or somebody.
ii. Mass Media: The means of communication that reaches large number of people such as newspaper, magazines, radio/TV.
iii. Urbans: This consists of cities or towns
iv. Degradation: The eye-sore condition of something or environment.
v. Sanitation: The equipment and systems that keeps places clean especially by removing human wastes and dirts
vi: Environment: The areas surrounding an organism which have an impact on their development and survival.
Vii: Enhancement: To increase or further improve the good quality value or status of something.
Operational Meaning of Terms
i. Role: The activities and functions of the media in enhancing urban degradation and environmental sanitation in Nsukka
ii. Mass Media: This includes the print and broadcast media in Nsukka which through their news programmes and documentaries, environmental enhancement can be sustained. (Lion Fm UNN, News today, starlite).
iii. Urban: This entails the towns that surrounds Nsukka urban such as Ede Oballa, Opi, Edem, Obukpa, Alor Uno, Obimo, Nguru and Lejja
iv: Sanitation: The process of ensuring proper waste management in Nsukka.
V: Degradation: The loss of respect of environment by people.
Vi: Environment: Places or things that surround Nsukka like roads, streets, markets, churches, play grounds etc.
Vii: Enhancement: The improvement of waste management in order to ensure healthy environment.
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