THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS:
A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKPOBA OKHA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE
The concern for quality and goal oriented education in Nigeria, necessitated this study. This is because a nation is driven by the quality of education provided for her citizens. However education in Nigeria today can truly be said to be bedeviled by numerous problems, one of which is examination malpractice. This paper discusses issues in examination malpractice, pointing out the causes of its consequences. It is recommends various ways of controlling the scourge.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the study
Limitations of the study
Delimitation of the study
Definitions of terms
Chapter TwoReview of related Literature
Origin of examination malpractice
Causes of examination malpractice in secondary school
Agent of examination malpractice
Forms of examination malpractice
Consequences of examination malpractice
Population of study
Sample and sampling techniques
Validation of instrument
Reliability of instrument
Administration and collection of instruments
Presentation and analysis of data
Discussion of findings
Chapter FiveSummary, recommendation and conclusion
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is true that no nation can rise above the quality of education provided for her citizens. And since the advent of western education in Nigeria, examination has being the major instrument used for the evaluation of learners (or student’s achievement). It is a means of assessing the quality and quantity or performance that an individual has accumulated at the end of a teaching process which may spread over a period of seventeen weeks.
Furthermore, education has been adopted as an instrument for national development. Therefore, government, communities, private organization and individuals have established educational institutions with a view to training the citizens for the development of the nation’s physical and human resources. In these institutions, teaching and guidance activities are supposed to take place so that appropriate skills and knowledge can be acquired by the students.
However, machinery through which the extent of knowledge and skill acquisition is determined at each stage of education has been set up. This is in form of examination which would be organized in order to evaluate, assess and test knowledge and skills. The outcome of the examination is used as a basis for decision making on the examinee’s ability. The examinee is consequently awarded a certificate which could qualify him for admission into a school, promotion into higher level of an institution and employment opportunities.
Moreover, many decisions which emanate from examination may not be valid due to involvement of examinees in malpractices. When such decisions are upheld, the certificate awarding institutions would be promoting and graduating incompetent personnel who would not be able to contribute positively to national development. Examination malpractice occurs in both internal and external assessment of educational outcome. It is a problem which has been afflicting the educational system for many years. It seems to have defiled solutions, so all antidotes applied so far have been faulted by fraudsters. Infact, it constitutes the most serious problem facing Nigeria educational system in general and secondary education in particular (Adesina, 2005).
Therefore, there is a need to sanitize the nation’s education by getting rid of examination malpractices. This is a challenge to the administrators of education within and outside the school system. In this paper, quality assurance is examined as a practical solution to examination malpractice.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
From the above, it can be seen that success in examination serves as a good motivator for students, teachers, school administrators and employer of labour. On the other hand, failure to perform successfully in examination demoralizes al and sundry, especially secondary school students. Therefore, it is the crave to succeed and avoid frustration and or any embarrassment associated with failure that makes students engage in “examination malpractices” which has threatened the very foundation of our educational system.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Taking into consideration the problem stated above, the purpose or objective of this particular study includes:
- To find out the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools.
- To find out the agents of examination malpractices.
- To be acquainted with the consequences of indulging in examination malpractice.
- To proffer lasting solution to the problem.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- It is hoped that at the end of the outcome of this study will expose students to the causes of examination malpractice.
- To expose students to the consequences of indulging in examination malpractice.
- To eradicate examination malpractice among students.
- What are the causes of examination malpractice?
- At what stage do examination malpractices occur?
- Does examination malpractice have a negative effect on the students?
- Does examination malpractice affect our educational system?
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is restricted to Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. In this context, some selected secondary schools “Niger College, St. Maria Goretti Girls Grammar School” and itohan girls grammar school will be used.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination: Examination can be defined as the instruments used for the assessment of individual’s skill and knowledge, content both in general and specific areas to studies and overall academic achievements.
Examination malpractice: Examination malpractice can be defined as a deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to official examination rules and is designed to place a candidate at an unfair advantage.
Education: Education can be defined as a process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills.
Evaluation: Evaluation can be seen as a process of forming an opinion of the amount value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully.
Achievement: Achievement can be referred to as something that somebody has done successfully using their own effort and skills.
Accumulated: This means to gradually get more and more of something over a period of time.
Accreditation: This refers to an official approval by an organization stating that somebody or something has achieved a required standard.
Assessment: Assessment refers to the act of drudging or forming an opinion about somebody or something.
Indispensable: This refers to something that is too important ot do without.
Demoralizes: This means to make somebody lose confidence or hope
Sundry: This means something that has to do with everyone and not just a few special people.
Crave: This means to have a very strong desire to do something.
Potent: Potent means something that has a strong effect on somebody or something
Competence: Competence has to do with the ability to do something very well
Motivator: It refers to the particular reason why somebody does something or behaves in a particular way especially something that involves hard work and effort.
Micro-chips: It is also known as “chukwuli’ or reminder or bullet. The term as used in the study means a method of copying or summarizing relevant aspects of a recommended textbook by the teacher in a very tiny manner on piece of paper, table, chairs etc for the purpose of cheating.
Giraffing: This is a process in which the student stretches his/her neck so as to copy other people’s work.
Sorting: This can be defined as a system whereby students negotiate with willing lecturers for underserved scores.