The construction of Sieve Industrial Sieve Compartment was carried out in the Engineering Workshop, Institute of Management and Technology, Enugu.

        The aim of this project is to fabricate an industrial sieve compartment which is capable of separating solid particles of various sizes.

        The construction was carried out in order to analyze the sizes of particles.

        The component parts of the set of sieve and their dimensions are as follows:

Height of sieve            -       300mm

No of sieve         -       4

Diameter of sieve        -       300mm

Shape of sieve            -       Circular

Height of sieve set       -       900mm

Mesh/hole sizes   -       top – 6.0mm, 2nd – 5.0mm 3rd  - 3.0mm, bottom 1.0mm respectively.

        In construction of sieve compartment, some factors were taken into consideration and they are:

-              The capacity of the sieve

-              The type of material to be used for constructing sieve

-              The availability of the material

-              The type of mixture that can be filtered in it

-              Cost which is the determinant factor in fabrication of any equipment.

These factors listed helped greatly in completion of this project.

At the end of the fabrication, a sieve equipment was constructed with specified dimensions.




1.1    Background of Study                                  

1.2    Statement of Problem                                 

1.3    Purpose/Aims/Objective of the Study             

1.4    Scope and Limitation of the Study                 

1.5    Method of Research                                    

1.6    Significance of the Study                             


2.1History of Sieve                                             

2.2    Theory of Sieve                                         

2.3    Definition of Sieve                                              

2.4    Types of Sieve                                                   




4.0    RESULT/ANALYSIS                                                      

4.1    Material Balance on Sieve                            

4.2    Screen Analysis                                  









Generally all Chemical Engineering mostly deals with the construction of sieve among other construction in order to fulfill the theory of separation technique.

Industrial sieve compartment is a kind of machine fabricated to be used in separating solid particles.  The sieving equipment works by allowing solid particles of different sizes to pass through the pores or the aperture which consist of orderly, arranged sets of sieves in a manner of the particle sizes and shapes.  Basically sieve equipments consist of a set of sieves preferably with the quality of shocker in accordance with its speed range.

The sieve equipment operates best when the solid particles is in their coarse and fine form.  The equipment has high sensitive efficiency, but only few have been constructed since the development of separation of particles.  This is as a result of the losses incurred and the procedure involved and also the labour needed to clean the sieve plate and to handle the sieve equipment.

However, in the construction of sieve, we have to bear certain qualities in mind to portray such as determination of size and shape of the equipment which contributes to the efficiency of the equipment. 

Size separation is a unit operation technique which is often used daily in industries, and our daily lives.  Sieving one of the size separation technique that is often needed and therefore sieve is the equipment used, and therefore for effective size separation, there is need for constructing of sieve compartments.


Before the existence of sieve compartment, there has been a lot of difficulties which one normally face when making or fabricating the equipment.  They include; cuttings during cutting, the whole cutted mesh might not be the same.   

Coupling – when coupling, the different cutted materials might not exactly fit, but joined using trial and error method.  And availability of material is also one of the problems encountered.


The main aim of this project is to fabricate or construct a sieve which is the basis of separation of solid particles into different sizes by passing it through mesh and with the assistant of shaking, large particles are retained on the mesh which is referred to as (oversize) and the undersize.   


The research was done by sourcing information from the library, internet textbooks and from previous or related subjects projects.

Empirical research was also conducted by performing a standard construction of a sieve compartment in the workshop.  The apparatus for the construction was set up and carried out with all the precautions strictly adhered to.


Construction of industrial sieve compartment has played a significance role to mankind and industries.  The construction of this work help to carry out effective separation without much problems.

It reduces the physical effort required by an operators, free him from tediously repeated sieving or separation because the sieve is in set and contains a shocker which when plug to the socket, performs the operation or separation on itself.


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The history of sieve particles size analysis can be dated back to the earliest time even before the early man.  It was used as a tool for separation, sieve was invented in mount Tinamtai an ancient place known for its beautiful land scape sieve, which is early called fen shaii, wedu shaidi in Chinese is made up of remie as screen and bamboo as frame.  Ancient native in tiantai crashed wheat in stone mortar, separated flour with sieve, and then made ambrosia to worship heaven.  To the memory of this great invention, a well was dunged and named as Preshai well.  It is located in tiantai country.

With the development of human civilization and technology, sieve as a tool becomes more and more close to human life, with social progress and technological development, sieve are more and more used in industries and the quality need is increasing.  This has led to an increase in the filter cloth mill, which lies at the foot of mount Tinantai for instance, provides various standard sample sieves for chemical engineering and fine chemical industries to make them contribute to the industrial development.  Most of the materials in copper and stainless steel.  Different types can be provided such as stainless steel screen and chromium electroplated flames.  The mesh is from 5.600 and diameter are 20 and 25cm.



The main use of sieving is in size analysis where a mesh of sieve of decreasing aperture size is commonly used to obtain data in size distribution of samples.  A sample is placed on coarsest sieve.  The nest of sieves is vibrated so that particles on the sieve are presented to apertures in the surface of the sieve.  Particles which are smaller than the aperture will pass through and fall into the lower sieve, whilst particles which are larger than the aperture will be retained.  In this way a vertical classification based on the size of particles relative to sieve aperture is obtained.  If one consider the process, a number of factors arises.

1.          The passage of particle through the sieve

2.          the efficiency of the grading of sample (soil)

3.          Mesh structures on the plate

4.          Particles shape


Suspended large particles to pass through the pores of the sieve plate will be retained on the top plate, these particles are called the bulky particles.  Under the bulky particles, we have cobbles and silt particles which cover a large range and sizes, however, they are bulky in shape.  The term bulky is confined to particles that are relatively large in all three dimension, as contrasted to platy particles in which one dimension is similar compared to the other two.  The bulky shape has the following four subdivisions listed in descending order.

       They are Angular, sub-angular, sub-round, round.  That is how they pass through the sieve mesh of different sizes.  The sieve plates are four in number and the angular particles will retains on top as overlap for the sub-angular that passes through the second plate called underflow, after which the sub-round, round, intermediate, sub-intermediate and fine particles.

       The shape of an individual particle is conveniently expressed in two of the sphericity which is independent of the particles size for a spherical particles of diameter

DP = 1; for a non-spherical practical, the spherical is defined by the relation


Os   =     6yp  ……………….(1)                    


Where     DP  = equivalent diameter or nominal diameter of


              Sp   =  Surface area of one particle

              YP    =  Size of one particle

To get the percentage retained on any sieve plate after the passage of the underflow, it is gotten by dividing the soil retained by the total soil weight and multiply it by 100%.


Percentage retained       =     Weight of soil retains  X 100%

                                         Total soil weight



Sieve is an implement consisting of a wire or plastic net attached to a ring.  Sieves are used for separating a finite range of particles sizes, dependent on the nature of the method used.

       Sieve analysis may be carried out using a nest of sieves, each lower sieve being of smaller aperture size.  Generally, sieve series are arranged so that the ratio of aperture sizes on consecutive sieves is 2, 2½ or 2¼ according to the closeness of sieving which is required.

       The sieves can either be mounted on a vibrator which should be designed to give a degree of vertical movement in addition to the horizontal vibration, or may be hand shaker.

       The classification of particle into sizes is effected by retaining high range of sizes while allowing the passage of low ranges through the sieve opening to the other side.

       Those particles that are retained at the surface of the sieve are larger than the sieve openings and therefore called the oversize or tail.  While the undersize or fines are smaller than the sieve opening.  From this analysis, it is then implies that the sole function of a sieve is to separate any material feed into two fractions undersize and oversize.

       Industrial screens are constructed with metal bar woven wire, silk cloth, punched or perforated metal plates.  Every sieve (screen) is characterized by the dimensions of the opening.  The opening is correlated in mesh which is the number of openings per linear inch from the centre of any wire to a point one inch apart.  The sieve ranges from 150 meshes (0.104mm) to 10mesh (1.651mm) size.  However, the actual openings are smaller than the corresponding mesh numbers due to the thickness of the wires.  The sieve size opening called aperture is the minimum clear space between the edges of the opening in the sieve surface.  The mesh size and the opening area are related to the size of the opening and the diameter of the wire.

       A     =        O2 -      OM

                   [O + D]2

Where A  =     Opening Area

       O     =     Size of Opening

       M     =     Mesh

       D     =     Diameter of wire



There are many types of sieve available, each specifically designed in consideration to the physical characteristics of the feed, number of separations required, amount of feed to be handled, moisture content, power available and method of delivering feed to the sieve and so on.  They are preferably grouped into five clauses: Grizzlies; vibrating sieve, shaking sieve revolving sieve and Gyrating sieve.

GRIZZLY SIEVES: They are most suitable for coarse fractions containing few fines.  Grizzly sieves have the sampling of design and construction and it cheap to maintain.

       It consists of grid of two parallel bars separated by spacers containing the sieve surfaces with the sieve openings.  The bars are spared to a predetermined distance of 50mm to 200mm.  The entire arrangement is titled to a given angle to the horizontal.  The feed is introduced at the upper part of the grid.  As the  feed particles roll downward the slope the undersize pass through the opening while at the other and of the grid is the discharge of oversize.  There are two forms of Grizzly sieve – stationary and vibrating sieves.  The stationary grizzlies are self operated on introduction of feed.  It requires no power and thus making it the cheapest to maintain.  but provides low efficiency of separation and scarcely applied in process industries.  Vibrating sieves are distinguished by mounting a set of bars on eccentrics which allows for to and fro movements.  The vibrating grizzlies are mostly desirable due to its relative high efficiency.


       Vibrating sieves are specially designed for high capacity and efficiency of operation.  It is widely used for all the grades of feeds especially in the separation of mixture of intermediate and fine particles.         

       Sieve is vibrated to keep the particles in motion and to prevent blinding.  Based on the vibrational method of p[eration, thus class of sieve is divided into two categories – Mechanically and electrically vibrated sieve.  Electrical vibrations are transmitted from the solenoids to the casing of the sieve.  For mechanical vibrating sieve, the vibration is transmitted from eccentrics to the casing of the sieve.  A range of 1500 to 7200 vibrations per minute are usual in all brands of vibrating sieve.




       This type of sieve is made up of series of compartments in shape of a circle or rectangle and separately covered with woven cloth at the top.  The Gyratory sieve like any other sieve operates by removing the coarse material first and then the finest last.  The coarsest sieve is at the bottom with suitable discharge ducts to permit removal of the several fractions.

       The sieve and the casing are gyrated by eccentrics to excite motions and sift the particles through the sieve openings.  It incorporates provision for the adjustment of speed of gyration, amplitude of throw and the angle of tilt to enhance higher performance.  The rate of gyration is usually from 500 to 2000 rpm and the angle of tilt from 150 to 300.  With a standard sieve, as many as eight separation can be accomplished in a single unit.



       Shaking sieve is the oldest traditional equipment and one of the simplest in design and operation.  It is essentially an arrangement of sieve in rectangular frame that is slightly inclined to the horizontal.  It does not necessarily require power and most often operated manually, a condition that makes it one of the cheapest in maintenance.  Due to poor efficiency, this brand of sieve is now given a way to newly improved sieve.



       This type of sieve was once widely used.  It is being widely replaced by vibrational sieves (screen).  They consists of cylindrical frame surrounded by wire cloth or protected plate open at both ends and inclined at a slight angle.  The materials to be screened are delivered at the upper end and the oversize is discharged at the cover end.  The desired product falls through the wire cloth openings.  The screen revolves at a relatively low speed of 15 to 20 rpm/mm.  The capacity is not greater and efficiency is  relatively low.




Methodology or fabrication procedure refers to those steps taken during the fabrication of the equipment.  The steps we understand in the fabrication of the sieve compartment process include, sketching the components of the sieve plate, marking out the material to be used (mildsteel), cutting, folding clearing and painting of the equipment.

The fabrication procedure is divided into two parts; the fabrication of the sieve plate and fabrication of the sieve mesh or aperture.

The sequence of the operation for the construction of the project in below.





       This is the first step taken in the construction of sieve plate.  It was done in order to establish layout of various components that make up the equipments.

       Hand tools such as the protractor, precision steel ruler, centre punch hammer and scribers were used to mark out the basic parts needed for the construction of sieve plate.











After marketing out the mild steel with chalk, you then cut and after cutting, you rule with ruling machine.










To find the area of the circular shape of the mesh on the mild steel used, you calculate using the area of a circle prD.

















Diameter of the mesh (300mm) is place on top of the sheet and traced 300mm and chisel was used to join the cylinder, chalk was used to mark out and chisel was used to cut out the excess.




















       All rough edges and parts welded are filled off using filling machine which makes the welded joints look neat and perfect.  They are also done manually using file handtools.  Polishing of the equipment construct was carried out.  This was the final that was done by using a sprayer with a paint that was mixed tuner to enable it come out from the sprayer.

Cleaning of the equipment was carried out bated on the part of the equipment for the set of sieves produced preparatory treatment was given to the stainless steel so that the dirt on it could be wipped off to make way for easy cleaning.

























4.0             RESULT/ANALYSIS


Simple material balances can be written over a screen which are useful in calculating ratio of feed oversize (overflow) and undersize (underflow) from the screen analysis of the three streams and knowledge of the desired cut diameter.  Therefore material balance on a sieve goes:






F     =     mass flow arte of feed in kg/s

A     =     mass flow rate of overflow kg/s

B     =     mass flow rate of underflow kg/s

Xf, XA, XB  =  Mans fraction of material in the feed,

overflow and underflow.


Overall Material Balance

F     =     A + B …………………..(1)


Component material balance

Fxf   =  AXA  +  B XB ……………(2)


If the feed is made up of only two components of n and m, then the mass fraction of m in the feed, overflow, and underflow are


Feed       =     1   - Xf

Overflow  =     1 – XA  and           

Underflow       1 – XB


From equation (1) A  = F – B ……………………………..(3)

Then substitute for A in equation (2)


F xf  =  (F – B) XA  +  BXB ……………………………..(4)


The ratio of mass flowrate of underflow to feed is

B     =     Xf   -  XA

f             XB  -  XA



B     =     XA   - Xf  ……………………………(5)

f             XA  - XB


Similarly, substituting for B = F – A from equation (1) into equation (2)

F xf   = AXA   +  (F – XA) XB


Therefore, the ratio of mass flowrate of overflow to feed

A     =     Xf  - XB …………………………(6)

F            XA  - XB


The efficiency EB for the undersize B is



EB   =     Percentage of material actually passed through

              Percentage of material expected to be retained


Efficiency measure for the oversize A

EA   =     Percentage of material actually retained

              Percentage of material expected to be retained


Efficiency measures the ratio of undersize B that actually pass through the openings and that of oversize A retained at the surface.  Therefore the ratio of oversize A that actually appeared in over flow to that the total amount of overflow in the feed En.

       En   =     AXA …………………………………….(7)


In the same ways the ratio of undersize B that actually passed through and appearing as underflow to the total amount in the feed Em.

       Em  =     B (1 – XB) ……………………..(8)

                     F (1 – Xf)

The product of the two ratio is the overall efficiency E of the sieve equipment.

E     =     En  Em    =   ABXA  (1 – XB) …………………. (9)

                                F2 Xf (1 – Xf)


Substituting equation (5) and (6) for B/F and A/F into equation (9) E becomes.


E     =   XA  (Xf  - XB)  (XA – XF)  (1 – XB)

             XF  (XA  - XB)2   (1 – Xf)



       The sieve analysis shows the percentage of particle fractions that passes through 10 – mesh and remains on 30 – mesh, through 20 – mesh and remains on 30 – mesh through 30 – mesh and remains on 40 – mesh and so on.

       The objective of a screen is to accept a feed containing a mixture of particles of various sizes and separates it into too fractions an underflow that passes through the screen and an overflow that is rejected by the screen.

       An ideal screen would sharply separate the feed mixture in such a way that the smallest particles in the overflow is just larger than the largest particles in the underflow, such as ideal separation defines a cut diameter DC which marks the point of separation between fractions. 

       The analysis of a sieving operation a carried out by placing a sample on the sieve with the largest opening arranged to be at the top most level.  Below this first apartment are sieve with decreasing size openings arranged in descending order in accordance with the expected dimensions of the products.  The coarsest particle fractions are removed first and then the finest last.

       As illustrated by industrial screening in the below figure C, the under flow contains some amount of the overflow while the overflow is mixed up with some percentage of the underflow.  The ideal separation is depicted in figures A and B. The occurrence of this phenomenon reduces the efficiency.




















fraction A consist, of all particles larger than diameter Dc and the fraction B is all the fraction smaller than Dc.



       Sieve is an equipment used in unit operation for separation of solid particles of different sizes, by passage of most of the solid through a mesh which retains most of the solid particles as overflow.  The classification of particle fractions into sizes is effected by retaining high range of sizes while allowing the passage of low ranges through the sieve openings to the other side.  Those particles that are retained at the surface of the sieve are larger than the sieve openings and therefore called the oversize or tail.  While the undersize or fines are smaller than the sieve opening.  From the analysis, it is then implies that the sole function of a sieve is to separate any material feed into two fractions – undersize and oversize.

       The construction of this project involves the following stages: - development of sketches engineering drawing, cleaning marking, punching, cutting and smoothing were identified and solved and those are the capacity of the sieve plate, the size of the mesh and the type  of material used for the construction for the material, it was base on the study gotten from their chemical, physical and mechanical properties.  Other problems such as the rate of passage of the solid, size of sand, grain size, distribution of sieve mesh, method of cleaning and operation were also considered and solved simultaneously.

       However, the sieve mesh consisting of a clear fine sand will not cause blinding, but the mesh soon became covered with some larger particles, which will be cleaned after operation to avoid blinding.  Once the particle passes through the mesh (underflow), they will fall into the other plate, which will pass it on the next plate drill all the solid particles are separated.  For experience, it has been known that the quantity of solid particle used at the initial stage is different from the one gotten at the final stage, the reason for it is the blind of the pores due to large particles that were unable to pass through the mesh or aperture.

       The quantity of the soil particle that pass through the sieve mesh depends on the condition of the sieve mesh at that time or at that point in time.  At the commencement of the use of newly cleaned mesh.  And also the sieve equipment cannot be washed with water, the operation of the sieve should be stopped once the required solid particle is not gotten after the experiment, because of blinding so that the sieve mesh can be cleaned for perfect result to be obtained the sieve mesh requires cleaning either by hand or mechanical means.

       The sieve equipment for soil particle analysis can be used for large pharmaceutical, mining, garri and flour industry etc.  It is better and save cost than local hand sieve.

       The fabrication procedure selected for the project are so comprehensive and suited for the construction of any sieve equipment and could also achieve maximum efficiency when such sieve equipment is applied practically.

       In the fabrication process there were lot of things we came across.  Examples are the steps of fabricating the sieve plates and the diameter of materials etc for the sieve plate aluminum sheets were used and were cut according to the dimension.  It was folded on a circular form, after while, the mesh for the plate was inserted and hooked to the bottom of the plate.



       There are factors to be considered is attempt to pick a screening machine for a specific screening problem.  The use of generalized formulas and charts to predict screen capacity of the screening machine will give only an approximate value.  This is because of many variables, which may affect performance.  Screen consultants will readily admit that they must depend largely on laboratory tests and filed experience.

       However, two governing factors been mention generally with of screen relates to efficiency.

       With this is necessary to reduce the bed thickness to a practical maximum and length to allow the undersize to be removed without inordinate amount of fines in the oversize.  In choosing a screening machine for a particular screening application the customer and manufacturer should consider the following:

1.          Full description of the material involved including the name and type of the material, bulk density and physical characteristics such as hardness, particle shape, flow characteristics (free flowing, sluggish, or sticky), present of moisture and temperature.

2.          Normal and maximum total rate of feed to screen.

3.          Complete screen analysis of screen feed, including maximum lump size, and sieve analysis of desired product.

4.          Separation required and the purpose of screening.



       Solid characteristic screening solid composition and cost of materials influences the choice of material to be used in sieve mesh.  The sieve is made of some kinds of steel and aluminum to avoid corrosion of such equipment.  Since it operates on open space and consumable substance.  Other materials like stainless steel, nickel, galvanized metal and copper, could be used but were disregarded due to their high cost and some other characteristics which they could not make up for, by this, their usage was limited.



       The choice of material for sieve construction requires carefully consideration.  It obviously affect the capital and operating requirement of the equipment and also influences the choice of particles coming in contact with the equipment.



       For proper functioning of a set of sieve it should be cleaned with brush before and after usage.  Wet solid particle should not be used in experiment, because it will cause corrosion. Regular check on the sieve mesh is important to detect breakage.



       A general safety precaution for sieve equipment are; when using the sieves, the solid particle right there, should not be more than the sieve plate, to avoid breakage of the sieves meshes.  The sieve plate should be placed well in the sieve holder to avoid droppage of solid particles.  Also the particle (solid) to be used should not be wet nor moist, it should be very derived to avoid blinding of the apertures or pores.

       It should be ensured that the sieve plate are of equal sizes, to avoid the dropping of particles, during experiment.  It also ensured that the sieve holder was strong enough to hold the sieve mate.  We also made sure that the mesh sizes are kept in sequence.











       In size separation operation, sieve is mainly used.  Other size separation equipments includes cyclone separator, electrostatic, precipitator, settling chambers, bowel centrifuge etc.

       The sieve equipment consists of a set of sieves.  The size of the solid particles should be uniform throughout the sieve plate.  For practice, a high degree of separation is achieved in sieve equipment than any other equipment, and as sensitive to the soil particles.  The occurrence of blinding which depends on the usage of the equipment without can be avoided by cleaning the sieve equipment after usage.

       The quantity of solid particle used, at the initial stage of the experiment is not the same with the one gotten at the end point of the process because of a larger particles causes blinding of the mesh.

       Also, the quantity of solid particle that can pass through the sieve mesh depends on the condition of the sieve mesh at a particular time.  At the commencement of the use of the newly clear mesh the head lost is low and the passage is always rapid.  But as blinding occurs the head lost it low and the passage of the particle is ultimate reduced.

       In the analysis of material for construction, materials that resist corrosion are preferred to be used.  In the analysis, stainless and mild steel should not be used because of their corroding factors.

       Therefore, it is recommended that Aluminum should be use in construction of the sieve equipment because of the following reasons:

1)         Highness in mixture

2)         Easy fabrication unlike other materials

3)         Resistance to corrosion over other types of metals


However, if a mild steel is to be used in any construction, the mild steel should be painted in order to prolong the life span of the material.















Engr. U.S.C Echegi, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering

Page 110 – 127.

Perry R.H. and C.H. Chilton, Chemical Engineering Handbook

       6th Edition McGraw Hill New York.

J.M. Coulson and J.F Richardson, Chemical Engineering Vol

II Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering Second Edition.

Peter I. Berry, Introduction to Solid Mechanics.

MAC Calo Smith, Unit Operation 5th Edition.



Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing (see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing (if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.

For more project materials

Log on to www.grossarchive.com

Or call