LEADERSHIP PATTERNS AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL: A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The purpose of this survey research is to explore the leadership patterns of public primary school headmaster in Edo State as perceived by headmasters. The subjects of this study include 20 public primary school headmasters and 100 public primary school teachers. The questionnaires has two parallel forms, one for the headmasters to rate themselves and other in which teachers can rate the headmasters. According to section (1) and section (2) the headmasters rated themselves the highest on the human resources frame in addition to this the majority of the headmasters consider themselves as being effective leaders and managers. As to teacher rating of the headmasters were rated the highest on the human resources frame in section 1 and section 2. moreover the majority of the teachers think that the headmasters that they work with are effective managers and leaders.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For many years now, researchers in the area of educational leadership have attempted to identify links between educational leadership and school effectiveness research. This phenomenon is mainly due to the perception that educational leaders, especially school headmasters, affect school effectiveness (Levin $ Lezotte 1990; Reynolds $ Cuttance. 1992; Cheng 1994; Pashiardis, 2004). However two main issues have arisen; firstly what position or roles do leader have in a school organization? Secondly under what condition does school leadership affect student’s achievement and to what existent?
In relation to the first issue, it is interesting that the vast majority of researchers have been involved mainly in studies of principals leaders patterns. However recent research has also been concerned with the leadership of person who have other roles in a school organization such as teachers (Harris$ Muijs, 2003, Pashiardis, 2004). As a consequence, it is necessary to investigate the parameters of many individuals leadership pattern in order to give a more complete overview of school leadership.
The second issue is more complex due to contradictory finding concerning effects of leadership on student’s achievement some studies found no influence where as others identified some effect (Heck 1992; Johnson 1993)
The meta analysis conducted by hallanger $ Heck (1996; 1998) and Witxiers, Bosker $ kruger (2003) emphasized at least two important element that differentiate the result among many studies firstly the different educational systems and cultures among the various countries lead to different result (also in pashisrdis, thedy, papanaoum,$ Johansson, 2003). Secondly the absence of intermediate variables between principal or headmaster leadership and students achievement tens to find no link between them (also in Teddlie $ Renolds 2000).
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Based on the above, this study aims to examine the headmaster contribution to school effectiveness among primary schools in Edo state. This work has adopted specific theories with regards to these three variable more specifically, it is based on the (Hoy $ Miskel 2001). Second these concept are presented at many level in schools for example, leaders can be identified at school level (e.g. headmaster) or at classroom level (e.g. teachers) (Cheng, 1994) moreover, there are many culture in a school such as organizational culture, teacher culture, students, culture, classroom, culture (Mechr $ Midgley 1996). Finally multi level models indicate many level of effectiveness such as the student’s level, the classroom level and the school level (Ereemers 1994)
The first concept that we examined in this study was school leadership. The examination of this concept involves many difficulties because of the large number of its definitions (Hoy $ Miskel 2001) one theory that views the multidimensional nature of leadership and especially effective leadership, is the Bolman $ Deals theory of leadership, frames (1991;1997). This theoretical frame work is based on the assumption that four leadership dimensions play important roles in effective leadership;
1. The structural frame which emphasizes goals, planning and coordination;
2. The human resources frame, which is sensitive to the human needs of others.
3. The political frame which recognized the ways that people seek to advance their own interest and
4. The symbolic frame which focuses in the rituals, myths and ceremonies that give meaning to organizational cultures.
The evidence of several recent studies supports the main assumptions of the theory. At the same time research identified new elements that complete the model for example Bolman and Deal (1991; 1992) found that the leader’s ability to use many frames is highly correlated with their effectiveness.
A second concept that concerns this study is organizational culture. Again the large numbers of definitions contribute to the difficulty of studying this concept as well based mainly on schein definition contributes to the difficulty of studying this concept as well. Based mainly on Schein definition (1992), Hoy $ Miskel (2001) defined culture as “the shared orientation that hold the unit together and give it a distinctive identify”. However, substantial disagreement arises about what is shared (norms, values, philosophies, perspectives, beliefs, expectation, attitude, Myths or ceremonies.). Another problem is determining the intensity of shares orientations of organization all members. While studies of educational leadership have focused on leaders in administrative position, recent studies are focusing on teachers as leaders (Bellon $ Beaudry 1992; Boles $ Troen, 1992; Wasley 1991). The recent educational reform movements, such as restructuring and site based management have promoted increased teacher participation and leadership in the decision making processes of various aspects of school administration. Studies about teacher’s roles in those reform efforts are beginning to emerge.
Information about leader who have guided or provoked their organization to change is also beginning to emerge. These leaders began with having a vision developed a shared vision with their co-workers and valued the organization personnel. Leaders who changed their organization were proactive and took risks. They recognized shifts in the interests or needs of their clientele, anticipated to the need to change and challenged the status quo. Educational leaders of change have these characteristics. How these characteristics are manifested by educational leaders is presented in the characteristics section of this paper. Since limited data exist on educational leaders the information on the characteristics of these leaders is drawn primarily from the literature on effective schools. However for effective school management. Teacher leadership roles are involving teachers as mentor’s team leaders, curriculum developers and staff development providers and intend to “improve the quality of public education while allowing teachers greater leadership in the development of those improvements (Wasley 1991). These roles involve teachers in decision making processes and facilitate teachers becoming leaders of change. Nickse (1997) studied teachers as change agents and advocated teachers in leadership roles in change efforts for four reasons.
1. Teachers have a vested interest. “they care about what they do and how they do it and feel a sense of responsibility for their efforts”
2. Teachers have a sense of history they are “aware of the norms of their colleagues”
3. Teachers know the community “have information concerning the values and attitude of the community” and
4. Teachers can implement change they “are where the action is. In the position to initiate planned change on the basis of need.
Yet despite these reasons and attempt to promote teachers as leaders of change and to extend teacher leadership roles, teachers do not view themselves as leaders (Bellon $ Beaudry 1992; Wasley 1991).
Nevertheless the data on leaders of educational change and the emerging information on teacher leadership indicate that the characteristic of these individuals mirror those of leaders who have changed other organization. Leaders of educational change have vision, faster a shared vision and value human resources. They are proactive and take risks. In addition they strongly believe that the purpose of schools is to meet the academic needs of students and are effective communicators and listeners. Leaders of educational change have vision, faster a shared vision, and value human resources. They are proactive and take risks.
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to unveil the leadership pattern of public prime school headmasters based on the Rota they pay for effective school management. The specific research questions of the study are as follows;
1. What kinds of leadership pattern are adopted by the headmasters of public elementary school?
2. Do leadership pattern differ in relation to the headmasters experience in the field?
3. Do leadership patterns differ in relation to the teachers experience in the field?
4. Do leadership patterns differ in relation to the teachers work experience with their current headmasters?
5. Do headmasters consider themselves as effective managers and leaders?
6. Do teachers consider their headmaster as effective managers and leaders?
7. Is there a significant difference between the leadership patterns of female and male headmasters?
8. To examine the reason responsible for lack of effective administration in primary school in Esan West local government area of Edo state.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The importance of this study lies in its exploratory nature as it attempts to unveil the leadership pattern employed in public primary schools in Edo state. This study is innovative in the sense that it will be first study to promote the leadership patter for effective management. This research wil provide additional evidence to educational authorities in choosing or training their leaders.
Furthermore it is believed to induce self awareness and reflection in headmaster concerning their headmastership practice; it will provide at least a basis for further studies related to leadership pattern of the Edo state primary school headmasters. However it will also be relevant to ministry of education, school administrators and teachers including all stakeholders in education.
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