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In this work, an experiment to determine the effects of different tillage practices on the rate of soil infiltration were carried out. Udenu Local Government of Enugu State which is my hometown was taken as a case study. For this experiment to be carried out a piece of land which was divided into four different plots of land were used. The different tillage practices which includes disc ploughing, chiseling, conventional ploughing and zero tillage were carried out each on the plots of land after which observations were made and seen that disc ploughing conditioned the soil better by providing high rate of water infiltrability to the soil followed by chiseling then conventaional ploughing and finally zero tillage which gave little or no infiltration but was observed to have the highest H2O holding capacity because of it’s compact nature and very littler pores exists there. That is disc ploughing     chiseling          
    conventional ploughing      zero tillage.
The chart that was obtained for the infiltration rate shows that there is little or no significant difference between the tilled plots while there is a significant difference between the tilled plots while there is a significant difference between disc ploughing and the zero tillage. Bigger pores spaces and the loose structure produced by tillage leads to drainage of water out of the sample that was tilled in comparism to the more dense nature of the untilled sample while they were all subjected to the respective pressure.

Table of content 
1.0    Introduction 
1.1    Background of the study
1.2    Tillage concepts and classification 
1.3     Objective and scope of project  
2.0    Literature Review  
2.1    Infiltration Rate  
2.2    Estimating infiltration rate 
2.3    Important of infiltration 
2.4    Water holding capacity
2.5    Retention mechanism
2.6    Important of water holding capacity
2.7    Factors affecting water holding capacity
2.8    Effect of tillage on infiltration rate and water holding capacity
3.0    Materials and method
3.1    Experiment layout and design
3.2    Field preparation and sampling
3.3    Method of sampling
3.4    Determination of infiltration rate
3.5    Determination of the moisture content for water holding capacity
3.6    Calculation of moisture content 
3.7    Determination of moisture content of the soil at field capacity
4.0    Results 
4.1    Water holding capacity
4.2    Infiltration rate 
5.0    Summary and conclusion
5.1    Conclusion  
5.2    Recommendation 
1.1    Background of the Study
    The importance of a good knowledge of the effects of different tillage practice on the infiltration rate of soils cannot be over emphasis. There is need for precision, especially in Engineering in other to minimize wastage, damage and cost. This precision has contributed to elude many engineering projects in Nigerian because of lack of vital data for planning. For this is very important.
    By investigating effects of the different tillage practice on the infiltration rate of water into the soil we are simply evaluating the influence of the different tillage practices on structural arrangement of the soil. This is because whichever way the different tillage method affects these properties in manifested in the manner in which the soil structural composition is modified by the various string actions. Structural composition has a pronounced effects on the physical properties as well an on the hydraulic properties such as a hydraulic conductivity, infiltration rate (Angulo-Jaramillor, 2000). The quality of soil structure may be expressed in term of occupy of the properties and hence any change in the structural arrangement of the soil particles will definitely alter the properties. Thus, the change in the soil structural arrangement as influenced by the various tillage treatment is an of interest in this study.

1.2    Tillage Concepts and Classification  
Land for agricultural purpose can either be stirred open by compacted or left intact (Zero tillage) the soil by tillage it rearranges the soil structures. On the degree of tillage input which is related to the amount of tillage energy and implement used.
Tillage include all mechanical operation which results in the production of an appropriate tilt which is required for optimum germination and growth of a particular crop (Matula S., Křivohlavý P. 1998a).
Tillage produces a loose friable structure which makes it easier for water to infiltrate and be conducted through the soil. It produces a good seedbed and is effective in controlling weeds. It produces a loose of produces, a loose of created soil. Residue of old plant along with certain disease organism and insect that constitutes lizard to optimum crop growth are buried (Le Bissonnais Y., Arrouays D. 1997).
The following tillage methods are employed in field cultivation: conventional, disc, chiseling and zero tillage. This is discussed in detailed by (Hermawam B, Cameron K.C, 1993). Recently the concept of optimum tillage’s was introduced. It is the amount of tillage which maximizes the return from the crop to the planted subject to minimize soil disturbance (Blevins R.L.,1992). In this soil disturbance for instance, one performs the operations that are necessary for reaching the best tilth required for crop growth and development.

1.3    Objective and Scope   of study
    The plough cuts, inverts, shatters and pulverizes thus accreting and loosing the soil hence providing easy penetrable soil for such deep rooted crop like maize (1.2m), sugar care (1.8 ) etc. (MatuLa .S. 2002) usually some trash are mixed and buried with the earth. They completely or partially inverting these soil and buying the top soil organic reside, they help in enriching the sub-soil structurally and thus increasing its potential for high water in take. The extent or degree of such modification and the manner with which each tillage equipment manipulated the state of these soils varies from one tillage implement to another. The mould board breaks, turns and pulverizes the soil. It gives best residue coverage and greater pulverization under ideal conditions. Unlike the other seedbed implement, big clods are produced because of the deep cut the disc plough works in a similar but it is better adapted to poor tilled condition such as roofy, rock and abrasive soil.
    The chisel are used for deep tillage are whose plough soles exists. They are different from the mould board and the disc in that they don’t invert. Sometime it is difficult to notice a chiseled land from an untilled land. This is because the width of cut is small, thus making the line of cut appear as creacks on soil surface.
    The harrows breaks up the big clods and make a finer tithe. They are used for seed bed preparation. Examples of this includes the disc harrow, (Blevins R.L. 1992) spring and spike tooth harrows. The ratavator is a shallow cutting tool. It produces the finest pulverization and it’s used to avoid stony rocking, or roomy soil. This is to avoid damage of the cutting blade.
    As already state before, there is greet need for precision in Engineering so are to reduce damage and cost. For this reason, investigation on how the infiltration rate of water into the soil and the water holding capacity of the soil influenced by the different treatment is very important. The result of such investigation will show which tillage treatment is a better tool for manipulating the soil as regards all owing more water to infiltrate into the soil and its capacity retain the water for an appreciable length of time.
The Specific Objectives of the Project are as follows:
(1)    To evaluated the effects of the various tillage methods on the water holding capacity and the rate of infiltration into the soil.
(2)    To find which treatment is a better tool for manipulation of the soil towards producing higher  rate intake and increased water retention.
(3)    The long term is to produce accurate data for producing the infiltration rate of water into the soil for different tillage method to help in drainage and irrigation planning. Tillage research has been going on for long time now (Matula S., 2002). It has been based on evaluating some physical and mechanical properties, example, bulk density, penetrometer resistance, angle of cohesion etc. This study is only a slight deviation with the study of hydraulic properties of infiltration rate and water holding capacity only.


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