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Title page                                                                 i

Certification                                                             ii

Dedication                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                    iv

Table of Content                                                      vi


1.0      Introduction                                                     1


2.0      History of Nutritional Disorder                         5

2.1   Literature Review                                             5

2.2   Diagnosis of Nutritional Disorder                     8

2.3   Causes and Symptoms                                    9

2.4   Effect of malnutrition                                       10

2.5   Effect of protein Energy Malnutrition               11

2.6   Classes of Food, deficiency, Symptom, Causes        14


3.0   Material and Methods                                      18

3.1   Method Identifying Kwashiorkor                      19

3.2   Prediction of Nutritional Status of Chemical   

        analysis of Urine and Anthropometric method 20

3.3      Method of Detecting Anaemia                          21

3.4      Method of Detecting Iodine Deficiency             22

3.5      Method of Detecting Vitamin A deficiency        23

3.6      Method of detecting Ricket and osteomalacia 24

3.7      Method of detecting scurvy                              25


4.0   Results and Discussion                                   27

4.1   Symptoms and control of Protein Energy        

        Malnutrition                                                    27

4.1.1Kwashiorkor                                                    28

4.1.2Marasmus                                                        30

4.2      Symptoms and control of Anaemia                  32

4.3      Symptoms and control of vitamin A deficiency 33

4.4      Symptoms and control of vitamin C                 35

4.5        Symptoms and control of ricket and osteomalacia         36

4.6      Symptoms and control of Goiter                      38

4.7      Symptoms and control of pellagra                   40


5.0   Conclusion                                                      42

5.1   Recommendation                                             42

        REFERENCES                                                 44



Nutritional disorder can be defined as the disease caused by nutritional imbalance, either over nutrition or under nutrition.  Nutritional disorder may result from eating too much of little of foods of a particular nutrients such as vitamins or minerals.  ( When food lack one or more of the common nutrients in food, one disease condition or another may result.  These diseases are called “deficiency  disease”.  (Akinjayeju,  1999).

Under nutrition as nutritional deficiency, refers to any change in the structure or function of body cells and tissues as a results of lack of one or more nutrients and or calories in the body.   Nutritional deficiencies are of two main types namely:- Primary and Secondary deficiency.  The nature and types of deficiency diseases that may occur depends on the type of nutrient the body lacks.  (Akinjayeju, 1999).

The most common deficiency disease is that relating to inadequate protein in diet and general shortage or lack of food thereby resulting in the inability to meet body’s energy requirements.  Such, diseases is referred to as protein calorie – malnutrition (PCM).  This diseases is common in infant and children, especially those below age six where it manifests as either Kwashiorkor (as a result of low intake of protein or deficiency of certain essential amino acid) or marasmus caused by energy and protein shortage. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder can affect any system in the body and the sense of sight, taste and smell.  Malnutrition begins with changes in nutrient level in blood and tissues (

In addition to the deficiency diseases, there are certain specific nutritional disorders, which are of great concern in developing countries including Nigeria.  The World Health Organisation has identified three of such nutritional diseases, which she said deserves special attention and highest priority on a global referred to as “hidden hunger” include -: Iron deficiency anaemia, vitamin A deficiency, vitamin c deficiency, vitamin D deficiency and iodine deficiency disorder. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Nutritional disorder are caused by various means or ways which may include the Lack of food and poverty.  There are different symptoms of malnutrition depending on what nutrients are deficiency in the body and they include:- Fatigue, Dizziness, Anaemia, Diarrhea, Goiter etc. (www.studenttechnologycom.).

The importance of nutritional assessment cannot be overstressed since it serves some useful purposes.  When nutritional assessment is properly made, it enables the identification of the nutrient(s) whose supply is adequate or inadequate and makes appropriate decision in relation to the scope of the nutritional supports that is necessary.  In addition, when such nutritional supports is finally given further assessment allows for proper evaluation of its effectiveness and success. (Akinjayeju, 1999).

Thus, the aims of this project includes:-

(1)        To identify some nutritional disorders prevalent in Nigeria in a bid to assess their effects.

(2)        To recognize the causes of such disorders

(3)        To outline the possible prevention of such nutritional disorders.


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