+234 813 0686 500
+234 809 3423 853
info@grossarchive.com

PREPARATION OF LOCAL SOAP WITH WOODISH DERIVED FROM THE CALYX AND THE COROLLA OF PALM FLOWER (EJEASIS GUINEENSIS)

  • Type:Project
  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:38
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Science Lab Technology Project Topics & Materials)

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION
1.1     BACKGROUND
Soap is the earliest detergent know to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994).  It is also an unsaturated ester since an ester can be split into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid by hydrolysis.  Meaning that it does not contain all the solutes that can be dissolve at a particular temperature (Kirt Othmer, 1994).  Also soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid because if a metallic base is used in the hydrolysis instead of water, the metallic salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained, not the acid because carboxylic acid are weak acid which dissociates only slightly in solution 
(Hou, 1992).

1.2     Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively (Cook 1990).
Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.
C3H5 (COOR)3   +   3KOH                3KOOCR   +   C3H5  (OH)
(where R – represent the hydrocarbon chain) also according to the equation above, soaps was made in huge keittes into which fat and oil and alkali were piped and heated until it boils vigorously. 
Saponification is the process used in making soap since ancient times, soaps have been made from vegetable and animal oil and fats looked in alkali (Kott, NaoH) (Steiner, 1990).  Soap and detergent are both cleaning agents and both work in the same way, but soap cleanse with the natural occurring materials such as animal fat and wood ash.

1.3     TYPES OF SOAP
In the world of soap manufacturing, there are basically three types of soap, under them they are classified according to their categories:
(1)     Foreign Soap
These are soap that is medically investigated to cure a skin diseases.  Examples:

(a)     Medicated soap
i.        Antiseptic soap
ii.       Germicidic soap
iii.      Herbal soap

(b)     Tablets Soap
These are soap that is operated and purified, dyes and perfumed added, to make the skin mild.
Example:    i.        Toilet Soap
ii.       Bar Soap
(c)      Local Soap
These are meant for a purpose not medically investigated but meant for cleaning ability.
a.       Black soap
b.       Sida Soap.

But here we are basically on the one made from Local raw material, which is the black soap (Ncha Nkota).

1.4     AIM AND OBJECTIVES
I.       AIM
Preparation of soap using local raw materials.
II.      OBJECTIVES
1.       To prepare local soap with woodash derived from the calyx and the corolla of palm flower (Ejeasis Guineensis), which serves as an alkali.
2.       To know the trees in which caustic alkali can be obtained apart from palm tree (EleasisGuineensis).
3.       To improve the properly preparation of local soap and high quality local soap.
4.       To educate some illiterate local soap producers on how to set a standard in the production of local soap and still retain its effectiveness and for a wider acceptability.
5.       To create awareness on the need and importance of locally made soap analysis.
6.       To make known to or enlighten especially the local soap producers (both urban and rural manufacturers) on the best and exact quantity or raw materials and methods to use to achieve better results in their products.

  1. This research project could as well as form basis for further research work on local soaps analysis in this institution.

1.5     STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The problems why people are no longer interested in the local soap is because it causes irritation of the skin; Reason, because they are not medically investigated and are not dirtiness causes dust, grief and stiffs on fabrics in the heading process becaus3 of the inaccurate measurement of the alkali and inability to bring out the purest form of the alkali.  Also some smokes and wood particles enter into the pot of soap on stirring because of inability to maintain a hygienic on cooking and on stirring.

1.6              HYPOTHESIS
H1              :         Raw Materials can be used in making local soaps
Ho              :         Raw materials can not be used in making local soap.

1.7     SIGNIFICANCE
This soap includes “Builders” as alkaline compound, which improve the cleansing efficiencies, example, in washing of cloth, washing of plate and washing of kitchen utensils. 

1.8     LIMITATION OF THESE STUDIES
This research work is limited by the extraction of alkali to manufacture good quality local soap with the leaching process and filtration method and it’s cr6stallization.

Share This

Details

Type Project
Department Science Lab Technology
Project ID SLT0107
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 38 Pages
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Details

    Type Project
    Department Science Lab Technology
    Project ID SLT0107
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 38 Pages
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Works

    CHAPTER   ONE 1.0      INTRODUCTION 1.1      BACKGROUND Soap is the earliest detergent know to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994).  It is also an... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Preparation of Local Soap involves the se of wood ash from the flowering plant of Daniello, Oliveri (Agba) Isoberllima doka (Achi), Parkia Clappertonwna (Ugba) and Eleasis guineensis (Nkwu) as the source for the caustic alkali were compared for performance.  The woody tissue of the local... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Soaps are the sodium salts or potassium salts of stearic acids or any other fatty acids. They are prepared by the saponification process, which is, reacting the oil which contain triglycerides with caustic soda (NaOH) to give the soap. However different oils... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Two medicated soaps and one local soap were investigated for their antibacterial activities against  Staphylococcus aureus . Identification of the bacteria species was by standard microbiological techniques which included colonial examination, gram staining, and biochemical testing. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal activities... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The construction of soap cutting table, mould and cutters became inevitable as it’s importance in our industries and society could not be over emphasized. When one considers the money at hand, he decides whether to start from the primary production level or secondary... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The construction of soap cutting table, mould and cutters became inevitable as it’s importance in our industries and society could not be over emphasized. When one considers the money at hand, he decides whether to start from the primary production level or secondary... Continue Reading
    C HAPTER ONE 1.0    INTRODUCTION Origin:        Mango ( Mangifera indica)  (Opioro)is a native to Southern Asia especially Burma and Eastern India. It is a member of cashew family ( Anacardiacee)  on of the most important and widely cultivataed fruits of the tropic world. Mango is considered as a king in Indian delicacy. The roots and... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT This work shows how to identify the various microorganism in palm wine and how to isolate the pathogenic organism in palm wine vie Nkwuenu and the attributes were identification of bacteria and yeast. All showed the spoilage rate between the erect stem and fallen... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Agbazilo Local Government Area which is made up of many villages and towns have their headquarters at Ubiaja. This area is rich in coconut palm (cocos nucifera) this project therefore, reveals some of the economic uses of coconut palm products and how they can... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT Agbazilo Local Government Area which is made up of many villages and towns have their headquarters at Ubiaja. This area is rich in coconut palm (cocos nucifera) this project therefore, reveals some of the economic uses of coconut palm products and how they can... Continue Reading