A computer based crime control record system is a system that enables the police force to utilize the computer system (hardware and software) to record crime information and also to investigate or to find out the perpetrators of a given crime based on past criminal records, or by the examination of evidence(s) gathered from the crime scene using specialized systems. According to Nicole (2009), the methods of detection employed are dictated by the nature of the crime and the procedures permitted by the legal system. Most investigations begin with careful, objective observations that are then assembled, collated, and matched against applicable law. If there is reason to assume that a crime has indeed been committed, further investigation are undertaken using scientific methods and techniques. Technological advances have been incorporated into criminal investigation as well; for example, analyzing trace clues such as dust, paint, glass, and other microscopic evidence is now possible. Most countries all over the world make use of a crime record system that also serves as an investigation system. The system is a comprehensive database of crimes committed and it makes it very easy for the police to investigate crimes. This is possible because the database can be queried based on different criteria such as type of crime, surname of suspects etc. when a crime is committed, the law enforcement agency such as the police force use the name of suspects to match with their criminal record database so as to get the address of suspects and other related information that will facilitate questioning. In most cases a DNA database is also maintained of every individual so that blood samples and hair strands can be analyzed and matched with the database and if it exists the offender can be apprehended. However, attempting to carry out investigation without the computer system could be very hectic.
1.1 Theoretical Background
Technological advancement brings about development considering the fact that the computer system is fast and accurate. In addition, it can store large volume of information thereby eliminating the need to record information traditionally with flat files. Law enforcement agencies such as the police force has recognized the benefits of the computer system and they have adopted it to facilitate their operations such as investigation of crimes. Information that would have ordinarily required much time can be achieved in few seconds using the computer system. It is very important that computers are applied in crime investigation as it will save time and make the job faster. As an authentic measure to showcase and implement the application of computers in police investigation, this research work is carried out.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Law enforcement agencies are faced with the challenge of inability to investigate case properly. At many times it is difficult to catch the suspects and also the wrong persons may be arrested because of the basis and technique adopted for investigation. On a very common note, there is no computerized criminal record system that will enable the police to confirm past criminal records, get information of suspects and also to query the records based on different criteria so as to track down offenders. The manual method adopted to investigate cases takes time and keeps cases pending and even neglected with time. Consequently, the perpetrators of the crime are not apprehended at the end of the day thereby making the police force investigation ineffective.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to Design and implementation of criminal record management system with the following objectives:
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is that it will provide a system that will aid police investigation. In addition, it will also bring to light the application of computers in police investigation. Also, the police force will find useful information in this research material that will enable them to handle the investigation of cases at an international standard that is globally acceptable.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study covers Design and implementation of criminal record management system Using area command, Ikot Ekpene as a case study. It examines all relevant areas of police investigation technology in use in the modern world such as computer forensics.
1.6 Organization of the Research
This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theoretical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It presents the research methodology, analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation. The choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Police – A civil organization whose members are given special legal powers by the government and whose task is to maintain public order and to solve and prevent crimes
Investigation – An examination or inquiry into something, especially a detailed one that is undertaken officially, or the act of undertaking an examination.
Crime – An action prohibited by law or a failure to act as required by law
DNA – A nucleic acid molecule in the form of a twisted double strand double helix that is the major component of chromosomes and carries genetic information.
Surveilance – Continual observation of a person or group, especially one suspected of doing something illegal
CCTV – (Closed Circuit Television), a system used for broadcasting TV signals captured from security cameras
Forensics – The application of a broad spectrum of sciences and technologies to investigate and establish facts of interest in relation to criminal of civil law.