This chapter presents the introduction of price management system. It contains the theoretical background, aim and objectives of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, aim and objectives of the study, research questions, scope and significance of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
1.1 Theoretical Background
According to Marn and Rosiello (2014), the fastest and most effective way for a company to realize its maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers shy away from initiatives to improve price for fear that they will alienate or lose customers. The result of not managing price performance, however, is far more damaging. Getting the price right is one of the most fundamental and important management functions; it should be one of a manager’s first responsibilities, a nuts and bolts kind of job that determines the dollar and cents performance of the company.
Pricing issues are seldom simple and isolated; usually they are diverse, intricate, and linked to many aspects of a business. But while most managers have a handle on the bulk of pricing issues, many overlook a key aspect of this most basic management discipline: transaction price management. Without realizing it, many managers are leaving significant amounts of money-potential profit-on the table at the transaction level, the point where the product meets the consumer. Most companies use invoice price as a reporting measure, hut the differences between invoice and actual transaction price can mean significant reductions to bottom line profit. Some companies that have identified this problem are handling it by applying two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. Reduced to their essentials, these concepts show companies where their products’ prices erode between invoice price and actual transaction price, and they help companies capture untapped opportunities at that level. Nagel, Hogan, and Zale, (2006).
The theory of supply and demand takes into consideration the influence on prices of such factors as an increase or decrease in the cost of production, but regards that influence as an indirect one, because it affects prices only by causing a change in supply, demand, or both. Other factors indirectly affecting prices include changes in consumption habits (for example, a shift from natural silk to artificial silk fabrics) and the restrictive practices of monopolies, trusts, and cartels. In the view of many economists, the multiplicity of such indirect factors is so great that the terms supply and demand are inclusive categories of economic forces affecting prices, rather than precise, primary causal factors. The price-determining mechanism of supply and demand is operative only in economic systems in which competition is largely unfettered. Increasing recourse, in recent times, to governmental regulation of the economy has tended to restrict the scope of the operation of the supply-and-demand mechanism.
The introduction of computerized technology into the retail environment over the past two decades has resulted in new opportunities for retailer managers. For example, demand based management uses statistical models to predict consumer price response using historical information. The most prevalent type of information in retail markets is transaction data collected using optical bar code scanners which track every item purchased by a consumer at the point-of-sale. This data could potentially contain a wealth of information about how consumers respond to price and promotions. A price determinant management system is a computerized system that aids in adjusting the price of products based on different variables such as cost price, transportation, taxes and commissions on products and competitors prices. This is done such that an optimal price is ascertained that still brings about a certain percentage of profit.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Many companies do not have an effective method of managing price of their products such that they maximize profit. When customers lack perfect information about prices they may also have imperfect knowledge of quality. Price tag management is intended to create the perception of a low price and increase demand. Many variables are usually involved from the purchasing of the product to marketing it and many business persons that are not conversant with how to set a price tag may end up running at a loss. In addition, the situation of increased price of the product may also reduce demand. There is therefore need for an effective software system that can aid in the determination of optimal price such that there is no loss or excess profit and also to provide room for updating price tag of items when needed.
The aim of the study is to develop a price management system for electronics store, that will aid the easy determination and updating of price tags of products in the store.
The following are the specific objectives:
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the researcher:
– What is a price management system?
– How is price management carried out?
– What are the features/modules of a price management system?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is that it will provide a possible solution to the problem of determining the price of products, it will serve as a decision support system and also as an information system to managers of Assure Electronics. The study will also serve as a useful reference material to other researchers seeking related information.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study covers price management system for electronics store using Assure electronics Uyo as a case study.
1.7 Organization of the Research
This research work is organized into five chapters. Chapter one is concerned with the introduction of the research study and it presents the preliminaries, theortical background, statement of the problem, aim and objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, organization of the research and definition of terms.
Chapter two focuses on the literature review, the contributions of other scholars on the subject matter is discussed.
Chapter three is concerned with the system analysis and design. It analyzes the present system to identify the problems and provides information on the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system. The system design is also presented in this chapter.
Chapter four presents the system implementation and documentation. The choice of programming language, analysis of modules, choice of programming language and system requirements for implementation.
Chapter five focuses on the summary, conclusion and recommendations are provided in this chapter based on the study carried out.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Price: The amount, usually of money, that is offered or asked for when something is bought or sold
Price Tag: Label saying what something costs also a small label attached to an item that is for sale, with the price written or printed on it.
Management: the organizing and controlling of the affairs of a business or a sector of a businessPRICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR ELECTRONIC STORE