IMPACT OF DRUG ABUSE ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH (A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN IJAW L.G.A , BAYELSA STATE)
1.1 Background of the study
Survey by World Health Organization reveals that young people are exposed to alcohol at many levels in society, particularly through advertising and peer pressure. As a result, harmful drinking habits are on the rise among adolescents and other youth. The 73 countries that responded to a World Health Organization (WHO) survey on alcohol and health, 71 percent reported that underage drinking had increased in the previous five years. And vulnerable young people, such as street youth and sex hawkers, are at far greater risk of early initiation of alcohol use and frequent consumption of drugs than the general young population. Many of the negative consequences that can result from alcohol use have been well documented, including drugs-related accidents and injuries, alcohol fueled homicide and suicide, drugs dependence, and alcohol poisoning. This brief describes the consequences of drugs use on young people’s sexual and reproductive health. It also addresses policies and programs aimed at reducing alcohol use and its negative consequences among young people as well as programmatic responses to drugs use and abuse.
Drug abuse being, an extreme desire to obtain and use increasing amount of one or more substance, this include alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cigarettes, codeine and other substances which are harmful to the health of the individual. When considering drug abuse one should be able to differentiate it from drugs dependence or drugs addiction, which is the physical dependence on drugs to function.Despite the unrelenting effort of individuals, agencies, mass media and the government at different levels against drug abuse, the prevalent practice among secondary school students, and even adults in the community has not reduced but on the increase geometrically.The World Health Organization (WHO), defines drug as any substance other than those required for maintenance of normal health, which when taken into the living organism, may modify one or more of its functions (Ghodse, 2003).
According to a United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Report (2005), about 200 million people, or 5 percent of the world’s population age between 15 and 65 have used drugs at least once in the last 12 months. Likewise, according to the World Drug (2005) reported that, the use of illicit drugs in all Nations has increased in recent years. The report goes on to note that the increasing availability of a variety of drugs to an ever widening socio-economic spectrum of consumers is disconcerting, although the main problem at the global level continues to be opiates (notably heroine) followed by cocaine.Drug abuse and other associated problems are inimical to the survival and effective functioning of human societies. A significant number of health hazards, untimely deaths, and accidents have been linked with the activities of persons under the influence of one drug or the other.Over the past two decades, the abuse of drugs in Kenya has rapidly increased and risen to unprecedented level and no part of the country is safe from the scourge (Ngesu et al, 2008).
Many people have defined drug abuse in different ways neglecting it actual causes. In medicine, drugs refer to any substance with the potential to prevent or cure diseases. Drugs can be legal or illegal. Drug abuse refers to non-medical use of drugs.
The reproductive system consists of organs that function in the production of offspring. The female reproductive system produces the female reproductive cells (the eggs, or ova) and contains an organ (uterus) in which development of the fetus takes place; the male reproductive system produces the male reproductive cells (the sperm) and contains an organ (penis) that deposits the sperm within the female. The external female reproductive organs collectively are called the vulva (which means “covering” in Latin). The vulva serves to protect the urethral and vaginal openings and is highly sensitive to touch to increase the female’s pleasure during sexual arousal (Coad &Dunstall, 2005). The structures that make up the vulva include the mons pubis, the labia majora and minora, the clitoris, the structures within the vestibule, and the perineum.
In the male reproductive system, the testes are inside a baglike structure called the scrotum. It hangs outside the male’s body cavity, which keeps the testes slightly cooler than the rest of the body. Normal human body temperature is too warm for sperm production. The cooler temperature in the scrotum enables sperm production.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Alcohol and cigarette are said to be legal, but these substances have also led to the initiation of other more potent drugs like heroin and cocaine. Abuse of drugs has created several health issues and dangers in our society today. Such as miscarriages, mental illness, cancer of the lungs,cultism, gangsters, rape cases and even juvenile delinquency. The alarming rate of drug in the southern IjawL.G.A is very common and it effects are so numerous. This study, therefore, attempts to investigate the contributions of family background, peer groups and family cohesion to drug abuse on reproductive health among male and female in Bayelsa State.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of the study is to examine the impact of drug abuse on reproductive health in the southern Ijaw L.G.A, Bayelsa State. The specific objectives include the following:
i) To examine the causes of drug abuse among southern Ijaw people in Bayelsa State.
ii) To determine the impact of drug abuse on reproductive of pregnant women in southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.
iii) To ascertain if there is any significant relationship between drug usage and a woman’s reproductive health.
iv) To ascertain if there is any significant difference in the causes of drug abuse between men and women in Southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
HO: there is no significant relationship between drug usage and a woman’s reproductive health.
H1: there is a significant relationship between drug usage and a woman’s reproductive health.
HO: there is no significant effect of drugs abuse on the reproductive health of pregnant women in Southern Ijaw L.G.A.
H2: there is a significant effect of drugs abuse on the reproductive health of pregnant women in Southern Ijaw L.G.A.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the end of this study the findings will be of utmost benefits to married men and women as it serves as a means of curtailing the effects of drugs on their reproductive system. The findings will be relevant to those who will want to carry out a similar research topic as it has contributed to the existing literature. Finally, the study will be relevance to the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and other relevant bodies in combating drug abuse and addiction on our schools and campuses.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study examined the impact of drug abuse on health of the southern people of Ijaw, Bayelsa State, in relation to their family background, family cohesion, peer group influence, and it effects on their reproductive system. The researcher encountered some constraint during the period of the study such as;
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
Financial constraint:Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Drug:A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
Abuse:Abuse is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit.
Drug Dependence: Drug dependence also known as substance dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Legal drugs:Legal drugs, also known as legal intoxicants or, more commonly, as legal highs, are those intoxicating drugs which are either completely legal or not commonly prohibited by various drug laws.
Illegal drugs:Illegal drugs are drugs which have limitations on their ownership or use by a government, and are illegal in certain situations (meaning a person is not allowed to have them).
Stimulants: Stimulants also referred to as psych-stimulants is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the body, drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects.
Inhalants: Inhalants are a broad range of household and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapors or pressurized gases are concentrated and breathed in via the nose or mouth to produce intoxication (called "getting high" in slang), in a manner not intended by the manufacturer.
Reproductive system: The reproductive system or genital system is asystem of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories tothe reproductive system.
1.8 Organization of the study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion and also recommendations made of the study.