Politics and election in normal democratic sense, is a way through which the electorate in any society appoint their leaders or representatives to exercise political power on their behalf. The purpose of this research is to critically examine and analyze political violence in Nigeria. The main objective of the study is to examine and find out the reasons for political violence in Nigeria politics, most especially during the electioneering campaigns and election days and the ways of ensuring that the issue is completely eradicated. Based on these objectives, the researcher adopted the use of both primary and secondary data collection to give a critical of the study. After a critical and thorough study and research on the subject matter the following findings were made, that political violence encourage mass rigging, that political violence cannot be a necessary tool in democratic governance etc. The research therefore recommended that any politician found guilty using political violence to win election must be punished accordingly.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The hundred and twenty-five years between the French revolution in 1789 and the outbreak of the World War in 1914 are remarkable in the history of government for the development of rise of democracy (Appadonai, 1978:233). The emergence of democracy as a dominant political and social ideology has among other been seen as pivotal instrument of advancing and maintaining progress in some parts of our society.
Democracy is a continuous process and struggle towards actualization of certain values, freedom, equality and justice. No matter how democracy is understood, interpreted and practiced it has a philosophical justification premised on certain cherished human values and ideas.
These values are freedom, equality and justice (Nnoli O. 1986:160).
Political violence in Nigeria is rooted in colonial politics when nationalists began to live men in the absence of state security personnel, in those days, thugs saw themselves more or less as warrior of old whose duty was to protect their leader by wording off any attack on them.
Like the old warrior, many thugs believe in the efficacy and of traditional paraphernalia. Others carry guns, machetes and other weapons.
Today, the distinctive hallmark of political violence in Nigeria is a variety of crimes achieved not only through violence, but also verbal abuse and other derogatory gestures.
Instances of political thuggery include killing of political opponents, party supporters, destruction of both private and public properties spewing ‘’violent’’ languages and deliberate distortion of information to mislead the public.
Contemporary political thugs perform any or all four main functions;
While politicians, ever selfish about victory, many view violence as a useful weapon of attaining or retaining power. Its negative effects are devastating.
First, it causes damage to lives and properties. Secondly, it is the integrity of the politicians, who use thuggery as a campaign weapon.
Thirdly, thuggery action tends to grab the headlines and displace the candidates ideas and programmes, thereby making it difficult to distinguish between ‘’good’’ and ‘’bad’’ candidates.
Fourthly, thuggery portends a bad omen for the election days instead of preparing citizens to accept election result peacefully, thuggery prepares them for violence, particularly if they feel that their vote were stolen. They may hire thugs as part of their revenge factious as it happen in 1964/1965, 1983, 2003, 2001 and most recently in April 2011 election respectively.
Political violence or thuggery inculcates and nurtures the culture of violence in our youths, a trait that has become rampant in our universities and polytechnics and even during the recently conducted elections.
We have seen youths unleash violence on political candidates, police men, (INEC) officers, judges, journalist and innocent citizens, sometime on behalf of their political candidate, sometimes as a means of venting against the power structure and sometimes as a smokescreen for extortion and loathing.
Secondly, thuggery invokes other acts of violence elsewhere in the polity particularly the actions of cultist in higher institutions of fanatical religious rioters, of militants in the Niger Delta, now Boko-Haram in the North and armed robbers throughout the country.
This networks of violence has branded Nigeria as a modern day lawless and unsafe country where violence rules.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Political violence which has been a major problem since the inception of the 1st republic has no doubt continued till date (fourth republic).
Many lives have been lost through election in this country, there have always being the problems of tribalism, regionalism, fear of domination, sectionalism, godfatherism and ethnicity.
Given the above view, Lokoja local government, being the case study is not exceptional to this problem:
Taking the above assertion into consideration, there is need for the government in Nigeria to set out rules different from the past to harness the masses and inculcate in them the need to avoid violent acts in the country.
This study therefore seeks to find out the impact of political violence on democratic governance in Nigeria, lokoja local government being used as a case study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to expose to the public most especially the youths and politicians how political violence has portrayed us in the eyes of international community. The specific objectives include the followingt
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will enable every Nigerian citizen to know why Nigeria history is filled with political violence.
This study is also a great significant to other researchers. It will significantly provide an opportunity for in-depth knowledge of the concept and the root of political violence in Nigeria.
This study is also of great significance to the people of Lokoja local government. It makes them to know that the end result of every violence is destruction.
To the country at large, it will serve as a road map from the dangerous journey Nigerians have embarked upon for years.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research is political violence in democratic governance right from the colonial period to date. Special emphasis would be made on the recurrent political violence in the life of our government with particular reference to thuggery and violent activities characterized electioneering campaign of 2003, 2007 general elections.
The main theme of this research is to critically analyze the political violence in Nigeria. How it has portrayed us in the eyes of the world.
The resultant effects of this violence are large scale political corruption, mass rigging, ballot box snatching, intimidation and a list of other evils that space would not allow me to mention here. Lokoja Local Government Area of Kogi State is to be used as case study.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The researcher encountered a lot of difficulties. Indeed, obtaining information of this project has not easy for the following reasons:
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The questions asked here will serve as the basis on which this research will be analyzed.
They will also help to form the boundaries on which the hypothesis to be tested in this study will be used.
1.8 DEFINITION OF RELEVANT TERMS
This tends to aid understanding of a researchers work. In this study, the following concepts and their meaning are state below:
VIOLENCE: Violent behavior that is intended to cause injury or kill somebody and destroyed properties.
RIGGING: To arrange or influence something (most especially in elections) in a dishonest way in order to get the result that you want.
THUGGERY: A device used by many politicians to out smart their opponents. It is violent, criminal behabviour.
DEMOCRACY: A government of the people by the people and for the people. It is a system of government in which all the people of a country can vote to elect their representatives.
ELECTION: The process of choosing a person or group of people for a position especially in political position by voting.
PREBENDALISM: This is a concept in which politicians (most especially Nigerian political class) clamour for power purposely for their own stomach.
CRISIS: This refers to a time of difficulty when important decisions must be made on a nation’s life or a period of controversy.THE IMPACT OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE ON THE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA