THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION OF LABOUR COST AND PRODUCTIVITY ON NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Motivation is considered as an important tool for enhancing worker’ productivity. Construction sector is not an exception. It has been empirically established that motivation has positive impact on construction worker’s productivity. Moreover, empirical studies have shown that productivity in the sector has been decreasing globally. This study therefore aims at examining the relationship between motivation, resistance and productivity and develops a model of this relationship as a way of addressing this challenge. Quantitative research design was employed with same questionnaire to the population covered. Productivity level was measured by work study with the use of five minutes field rating. Stratified and random sampling techniques were used to administer questionnaire to the supervisors, craftsmen and contractors sampled from a selected number of medium and large size firms in Lagos, Nigeria. Stratified sampling was used to divide supervisors into strata of builder, architect and engineer. The findings also reveal that the influence of resistance among workers is not sufficient to impair on the level of productivity in construction firms in Lagos, Nigeria. The study concludes that productivity decrease being experienced in Nigeria construction industry may continue if motivation strategy is not re-designed to meet workers need.
Table of Content
Background To The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Objectives Of The Study.
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance Of The Study
1.7 Scope Of The Study
1.8 Operational Definition Of Terms
2.2 Concept Of Motivation
2.3 Theoretical Development Of Motivation Notion
2.4 Theories Of Motivation
Theory Of Organisational Change
Empirical Studies On Motivation
Empirical Studies On Motivation And Productivity
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Study Population
3.4 Sampling Technique
3.5 Data Collection Techniques
3.6 Data Analysis And Presentation
Results, Analysis And Discussions
4.2 Motivating Factors That Enhance Productivity Of Workers
4.3 Impact Of Motivation On Workers’ Productivity
4.3.2 Hypothesis Testing Of Motivation And Productivity Relationship
4.6 Discussions Of Results
Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations
5.1 Summary Of Findings
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Human resource management is of strategic importance when it comes to industries that are labour intensive like construction industry. The effective management of human resource is the key towards achieving the higher construction workforce productivity thus accomplishing the construction projects within their predefined limits. The bond between motivation and productivity is widely accepted and of high significance as well. The relationship between motivation and productivity can be summarized as that productivity is directly linked to motivation, and motivation is, in turn, dependent on productivity. Suitable motivation of labour can be hypothesized as a key contributor to maximizing workers' productivity Kazaz et al (2008. Workers need motivation just as equipments need fuel and operators. Motivation is a process which activates productivity. In order to effectively manage the human resources and to make sure that workforce is productive enough; it is necessary to understand those factors which have edge over others for motivating the construction workforce. In this study, the potential of organizational and economic factors will be studied for motivating employees.
There were several studies which explored the relationship between motivational factors and construction workforce productivity around the globe but there was a scarcity of this work in the local environment of Nigeria. The construction industry plays an important role in the development of the economy of the country. Construction industry is an area influenced by many different factors such as labour, material, equipment and construction methods etc. Among these factors, human resources come first without which, other resources would not be utilized or transformed into productive use. Any improvement in labour productivity would contribute a great deal to the improvement of the overall productivity as identified by Hashim (1995). The motivation concept is generally defined as a composition of powers and mechanisms which help to direct human behavior in a desired manner, or with a more specific context it is described as the all convincing and encouraging actions which help workers fulfill their tasks willingly and to come closer to project objectives. Motivation of the labour force is of paramount importance because the quality of human performance at the workplace depends largely upon motivation. That is, higher motivation brings higher productivity which is suggested by Kazaz et al (2008). According to most researchers there is a positive relationship between motivation and productivity. This means that when motivation increases, a rise in productivity is also expected. This reflects the belief that an increased motivation level causes an increase in productivity. Achieving the results demands that an adequate quality of inputs is provided in this first place and improved construction workforce productivity means a better input and this it will help contractors to be more competent and profitable whilst executing their jobs.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Construction companies exist for the purpose of rendering some services. For the organization to meet its objectives, people are employed in the organization in order to help the organization meet its objectives. Thus, in order to ensure that people employed in the organization perform optimally towards the realization of organizational goals, they need to be motivated to work.
Motivating people to work entails meting their needs. There is a great controversy over the issue of motivating people.
Some people are of the view that such extrinsic factors like money, praise, and quality of supervision and company's policy can motivate people to work, while others are of the view that such extrinsic factors like advancement quality of the job done by person, recognition and growth can motivate workers to productivity.
It is in view of these controversies that this study wants to look at the motivation of employees in the organization by using Marlum Construction Company as a case study; and in doing this, the following questions arise:
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.
This research work hopes to achieve the following objectives:
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
It is in view of the above problems that the following questions arise:
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:
Hi: The quality of supervision will motivate workers productivity.
Hi: A worker's perception of what obtained in his organizational will motivate him to greater productivity.
Hi: A worker's perception of organizational appraisal policy will not motivate him to greater productivity.
Hi: The worker's satisfaction with its fringe benefits will motivate him to greater productivity.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will educate the management of the organization (especially construction companies in Nigeria) on how to motivate their workers to productivity.
The findings of this study will generate people's interest in researching into other areas of motivation in the organization will enrich the literature on motivation as a phenomenon.
Finally, the study hopes to enrich people's knowledge in this area of organizational behaviour and management of people in the organization.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is on effect of motivation of labour, cost and productivity on the construction industry of Nigeria. The study will also covers the various techniques of motivation and theories of motivation as they impact on employees productivity in an organization.
The following terms were defined as used in this study:
Productivity: Is the ratio of output or production capacity of the workers in an organization. It is the relationship between the amount of one or more inputs and the amount of outputs from a clearly identified process.
Employees: are the workers in an organization, working for the accomplishment of the organizational goals. In this study, the employees are those staffs of the organization,
Motivation: Motivation is a decision-making process, through which the individual chooses the desired outcomes and sets in motion the behaviour appropriate to them".
Adequate Motivation: These are factors (familiarity, concern and driving force), which exist or are provided in a work situation either physically or psychologically which determine the input and productivity level of the worker.
Intimacy: Intimacy or Familiarity could be described as the feeling of warmth and friendliness based on interpersonal relationship among people.
Consideration: Consideration or Concern refers to a situation where both their colleagues and managers treat staffs with understanding. In this case, there is both a personal and human touch in dealing with workers.
Morale: Moral refers to staff emotional and mental level of zeal.