Policy making and Implementation is one issue that cannot be over emphasized because of the important role it plays I the life of any organization wishing to survive and to grow in the face of changing world. Based on the need for organizations to achieve their objectives, the researcher decided to conduct research study on the obstacles to effective Implementation of policies in the local government system in Nigeria with a particular reference to Orlu LGA, Imo state. It has been observed that policy Implementation is one of the major problems confronting Nigeria since inception. Public policies therefore plays crucial role in the state and are equally instrumental to the develop or underdevelopment of any given state. Whereas, there has been no lack of public policies since independence in Nigeria the paradox of public policy Implementation has continued to militate and mar the realization of policy objectives in the country. The reason being that most policies in Nigeria either terminates prematurely only at the formulation stages or simply mal-implemented to benefit a few individuals, or a section of the society. However, poor policy Implementation is believed by some analysts to be the bane of development in Nigeria. The paper therefore, seeks to highlight the need for proper and effective policy Implementation while identifying some impediments to be tackled of Nigeria is to ensure that policies, particularly those relating to institutional or organizational development are effectively and timely implemented. These impediments include among others; corruption, ethnicity bad leadership, political instability, low public service structures. The paper posits some sustainable development measures, such as effective use of political will, eschewing social vices (like ethnicity, favoritism nepotism and mediocrity), continuity of policies between government, eradication of corruption etc.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has been observed that policy implementation is one of major problems confronting local government in Nigeria and organizations within. According to Adamolekun (1983), policy implementation refers to the activities that are carried out in the light of establishing policies. It refers to the process of converting financial, material, technical, and human inputs into outputs-goods and services (Egonwun, 1991). Edward (1980) defines Policy Implementation as a stage of policy making between the establishment of a policy (such as the passage of a legislative act, the issuing of an executive order, or the promulgation of a regulatory rule) and the consequences of the policy for the people whom it affects it also involves a wide Varity of actions such as issuing and enforcing directives, disbursing funds, making loans, assigning and hiring personnel, etc.
Implementation problem occurs when the desired result on the target beneficiaries is not achieved. Such problem is not restricted to only the developing nations. Wherever and whenever the basic critical factors that are very crucial to Implementation of public policies are missing, whether in developing or developed nations, there is bound to be Implementation
Problems. These critical factors are communication resources, dispositions or attitudes, and bureaucratic structure (Edwards, 1980). The four factors operate simultaneously and the interact with each other to aid or hinder policy Implementation. By Implication therefore, the Implementation
Of every policy is a dynamic process, which involves the interaction of many variables as would be discussed below.
Communication is an essential ingredient for effective Implementation of public policy. Through communication, orders to implement policies are expected to be transmitted to the appropriate personnel in a clear manner while such orders must be accurate and consistent. Inadequate information can lead to misunderstanding on the part of the implementers who may be confused as to what exactly are required of them. In effect, Implementation instructions that are not transmitted, that are vague or that are in consistent may cause serious obstacles to policy Implementation. Conversely, directives that are too precise may hinder Implementation by stifling creativity and adaptability (Edward III, 1980). Without sufficient resources it means that laws will not be enforced, services will not be provided and reasonable regulations will not be developed.
In addition to communication and resources disposition or attitude is another key factor that affects policy Implementation. Most Implementers can exercise considerate discretion in the Implementation of policies because of either their independence from their nominal supervisors who formulate the policies or as a result of the complexity of the policy itself. The way the Implementation exercise their discretion depends to a large extent on their disposition towards the policy. Therefore the level of success will depend on how the implementers see the policies as affecting their organizational and personal interest. Where a policy will result in reduction of pay, low self-esteem or loss of position to the Implementers, the attitude of disposition will be affected adversely.
On the other hand, if a policy will enhance the status, the pay or the self esteem of the implementer such implementer will be favorably disposed to it. It is to be noted that the fact that communication resources, and positive disposition are put in place there is no efficient bureaucratic structure, the problem of Implementation can still arise especially when dealing with complex policies. As observed by Edward (1980) where there is organizational fragmentation it may hinder the coordination that is necessary to successfully implement a complex policy especially one that requires the cooperation of many people. It may also result in wastage of scarce resources, inhibit change, create confusion leads to policies working are cross-purpose and at the end, result in important functions being overlooked.
However, there are in addition to the above, some problems that seem peculiar to federal Polytechnic Nekede in the area of policy Implementation. These are usually problems that lead to Implementation gap and which can be traced not only to the policy itself but also to the policy maker and the policy environment and it was on this background that research was carried out.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Since the took off of local government administration many policies have been formulated but are not fully implemented due to one problem or the other. In the course of this book, a lot of problems have been identified. Therefore, this work sets out to address the following problems.
Lack of political will/attitude to policy Implementation have been a serious problem to policy Implementation in various organizations and Nigeria at large. Policy Implementation or delivery is negatively or positively affected by the attitude or behavior disposed to a policy. That is, if they are negatively disposed to a policy, there will be lack of commitment to the Implementation process. It has been observed that the Nigerian state is privatized, dependent, weak, and lack autonomy. Therefore, despite the availability of public policies, that stands to better the lot of the average Nigerians, poor Implementation design, conception, and discipline has mar Implementation chances and cause policy failure. This is because the instrument methods, knowledge technology, equipment, models and modes of delivery utilized in Implementation a policy determine whether Implementation and performance would be successful or not. The institution in most cases, down plays the crucial issue of Implementation design of public policies. This trend translates to the advent of public policies without clear-cut modalities or mechanism of Implementation. Policy objectives are therefore in most cases misinterpreted or worst still abandoned.
Poor programme leadership and management: There are poor programme leadership and management personnel who can steer, direct and motivate program efforts. It is only an able, committed and enthusiastic devotion could build and strengthen the commitment devotion loyalty, support and enthusiasm of staff in program Implementation. Unfortunately, the Nigerian state mainly parades an array of misfits for highly sensitive public positions, and this ugly scenario led to the inability of program leaders to create favorable environment for policy Implementation.
Lack of resources has confronted many policies In the institution. When most policies are formulated adequate provision of resources is not made to implement them. There is thus politics of Implementation because the resources needed for adequate Implementation are not provided to realize policy objectives.
Many Implementers have failed in the institution and Nigeria at large as a result of corruption. When corruption penetrates the Implementation process, public policies become muted and the desired goals may not be achieved. Most public policies are formulated and funds appropriate for, but corruption like an octopus has continued to entangle, ruin and make impossible the Implementation process. Due to corruption, Nigeria is still under the yoke of excruciating poverty and underdevelopment despite the several efforts being made to alleviate poverty.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
To know the significant relationship between corruption and policy Implementation in Nigerian Local Government councils.
To examine the impact of poor policy Implementation programme in Nigeria economy.
To know if there is a positive relationship between poor leadership and policy Implementation in LGA
To ascertain if inadequate provision of resources or fund affects policy Implementation In Nigeria.
To know if lack of political will to positively realize objectives affects policy Implementation.
To find the problem of policy Implementation in Nigeria.
To proffer solution to the problems.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research will provide answers to the following research questions.
1. Is there any significant relationship between corruption and policy Implementation in Nigeria LGA
2. What are the impacts of poor policy Implementation in Nigeria economy?
3. Is there a positive relationship between poor leadership and policy Implementation in Nigeria?
4. Do inadequate provision of resources or find affects policy Implementation in Nigeria?
5. Does lack of political will to negatively realized policy objectives affects policy Implementation?
6. What are the problems of policy Implementation in Nigeria?
7. What are the solutions to the problem of policy Implementation in Nigeria?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This work is essential because it will prove itself as a landmark to policy makers, statement, political and even bureaucrats alike which is also reliable and as a veritable guide for future policy Implementation.
It will also provide platform for more indebt research into the art and science of policy Implementation in Nigeria especially within this period of nursing democracy.
This work will expose the flaw inherent with the Implementation of policy Orlu LGA in Imo state. It will be immense help to researchers and students who wants to carry out further research on the same subject to the existing literature on problems of policy Implementation.
Furthermore, it will uphold the reason why various policy formulated in Nigeria failed at the Implementation stage.
Finally, it will proffer solution to the problems of policy Implementation in Nigeria.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Problems of policy Implementation varies from country to country or organization to organization. This implies that the level of institution policy Implementation potentials determines somehow the level or rate of growth seen in the institution. In addition to this, many policies have been formulated in most Nigeria owned organizations but has failed on Implementation stage as result of different problems. However, due to the above reason, time frame and finance, it is practically impossible for the study to discuss the problems why the l Implementation of the all policies failed I these organizations. Consequently, this study is to problems of policy Implementation in Nigeria using Orlu LGA in Imo state as a reference point.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited or faced with series of constraints in the course of writing it. Prominent among the constraints are time spent in gathering data or information for the project and time spent in compiling as this is combined with lectures and other course works.
Secondly the finance in carrying out this activity was a big problem. Obtaining relevant data or information was another limiting factor although all the required information was sufficient. Even in situations where interviews were necessary, there was difficulty in scheduling interview as some qualified personnel are either busy or ignorant over such interview.
Definitions of term
Problems: From the Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, problems is seen to be something that is difficult to deal with or understand
Policy Implementation: Policy Implementation is giving help and effect to policy so that objectives of the policy can be achieved.
Programme: A programme is a plan of things that will be done or included in the development of anything.
Politics: A politics is all human activities that are involved in getting and using power in public life and bring also a decision that influences others in any place.
Public policy: Public policy is the connection that refers to those definite actions of government that is towards the fulfillment of the obligations of the state.
Planning: Darton Mc. Farland (2006) defined planning as the activity where the manager analyzes present condition to determine ways of reaching a desired future state.
Control: This involves installing check and balances; it is a process of ensuring that the courses of action are maintained and that the desired ends are achieved.
Policy formulation: Policy formulation is affirmative decision which entails the approval of a preferred policy alternative, somebody or policy actors.
|Account Name||Obiaks Business Venture|