This research work sets out to investigate teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education in some selected secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. To achieve this, a total number of four (4) research questions were raised and twenty (20) test items were constructed using a self structured questionnaire as the instrument used from which responses were elicited from the respondents. A total of thirty (30) students and thirty (30) teachers’ respondents were randomly selected from three (3) different schools in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area. The split half reliability was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained. The simple percentage ad descriptive method was used for the data analysis. The results obtained from the study showed that participant have a favorable perception towards the teaching of sexuality education and it should be taught to both male and female students irrespective of their age/ level. Based on the findings, recommendations were made that sexuality education should b fully included in the school curriculum and made compulsory also sex education teachers should teach comprehensive sex education without any element of prejudice to any aspect of the content.
TEACHERS AND STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE TEACHING OF SEXUALITY EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page - - - - - - - - i Certification - - - - - - - - ii Dedication - - - - - - - - iii Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv Abstract - - - - - - - - ix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Background to the Study - - - - - - 1 Statement of the Problem- - - - - - - 6 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - 7 Significance of the Study - - - - - - 7 Research Question - - - - - - - 9 Limitation of the Study - - - - - - 10 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - 10 Definition of Terms - - - - - - - 11 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Conceptual Framework - - - - - - 12 Objectives of sexuality education - - - - - 17 Components of sexuality education - - - - 18 Sexual rights- - - - - - - - 20 Approaches to sexuality education - - - - - 23 Sexuality issues and cultural beliefs - - - - 28 Need for sexuality education - - - - - 30 Importance of sexuality education- - - - - 34 Challenges of sexuality education - - - - - 36 How should sexuality education be delivered - - - 38 Summary of Literature Reviewed - - - - - 41 CHAPTER THREE: METHOD OF THE STUDY Research Design - - - - - - - 43 Population of the Study - - - - - - 43 Sample and Sampling Techniques - - - - - 43 Research Instrument - - - - - - - 44 Validity of the Instrument - - - - - - 45 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - - 45 Method of Data Collection - - - - - - 45 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - 46 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Presentation of data - - - - - - - 47 Discussion of Findings - - - - - - 68 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary - - - - - - - - 72 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 74 Recommendations - - - - - - - 75 Suggestion for Further Studies - - - - - 77 REFERENCES - - - - - - - 78 Appendices- - - - - - - - - 80
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background to the Study The need for sexuality education in schools has become indispensable in today’s contemporary society. While many societies and culture around the world are yet to consent to the introduction of sex education in schools, belief system, political system, religion, etc., some countries sees sex education as a gateway to deal with issues related to reproductive health and sexual preference among teenagers. Sexual health is one of the five core aspects of WHO global reproductive health strategy approved by the world health assembly in 2010. (WHO, 2010). According to WHO, sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desire, belief, values, attitude, behaviours, practices and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors (WHO, 2010). Collins (2010) argued that sexuality education encompasses education about all aspect of sexuality education including information about family planning, reproduction, body image, sexual orientation, values, sexual pleasure, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections and how to avoid them and birth control methods. It is also a means of safeguarding or protecting the youths against the consequences of sexual ignorance as well as preparing them for responsible life. Perception is the ability to see, hear or understand things (Nwagugu, 2011).Peter and Donald (2011), defined perception as a process by which organism interpret and organise sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world around them. According to Morgan, King and Schopher (2010) perception are the way one notices things especially with senses like ear, eye, nose and tongue or the ability to understand the true nature of something. They further stated that it is a process by which an individual analysis or view a situation. In the context of the present study, perception is the process of becoming aware, analyses or view a situation with clear understanding of events in respect to sexuality education. Sexuality is a fundamental aspect of human nature, yet an aspect that is still considered a taboo. This is especially true with regard to adolescents, yet its group constitutes around 20% of the world’s population, or 1.4 billion people (WHO, 2013), and research has shown time and again, that despite such taboos, a considerable number are sexually active. The shame and fear of discussing sexuality with adolescents has resulted in misinformation, a lack of knowledge and skills, and negativity-skewed attitudes towards sex. This, in turn has resulted in unsafe practices. The WHO (2014) estimates that globally, more than one million people acquire an STI every day, and that over 60% of these cases are in under 24’s. Further, these dangerous practices have contributed to a global HIV epidemic, of which sub-Saharan (SSA) is the biggest victim. A 2012 report by UNAIDS, claims that SSA accounts for 69% of infected people worldwide (UNAIDS, 2012), with young woman at particular risk. Unsafe adolescent sex can be lead to unwanted pregnancies, complications including higher proportions of still births, unsafe abortion, and a risk of school expulsion and social exclusion. WHO (20120) estimates that worldwide, 16 million adolescent girls give birth every year, and an estimated three million undergo unsafe abortions. Worldwide, unsafe abortions are estimated at an average of 21/22 per 1000 women. These figures are highest in East Africa region, standing at 36 unsafe abortions per 1000 women. The primary goal of sexuality education is promotion of sexual and reproductive health, especially in Nigeria were sex education is seen as a taboo to be talked about. Generally, adolescents are not allowed to have access to sexual health information because the society have the perception that such exposure will corrupt the child and he or she may likely be a victim of early sexual intercourse. In 2002 when the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in conjunction with the Federal Ministry of Education, civil societies and many other International Development partners drafted and proposed a curriculum on sexuality education for primary and secondary schools, it was received with mixed feelings and generated raging controversy especially in Northern Nigeria. Within a very short time, the discussion on its acceptability or otherwise was hijacked by religious leaders and other gate-keepers and was given different connotations and coloration. A recent study carried out in Kano state of Northern Nigeria, revealed that parents have a negative perception of sexuality education in schools probability because of their religious belief and socio-cultural norms and values. In contrast, teachers had positive attitude towards teaching sexuality education in schools (Ayyuba, 2011). Nevertheless, several studies in Nigeria have validated the introduction of sex education in schools. A cross-sectional study carried out in Kwara state, Nigeria reported that 78% of the respondents suggested that sex education should be made compulsory in schools (Akande, 2010). School is a privileged setting for formal, articulate sex education as children and adolescents spent a considerable amount of their time at school and other media agents of sex education like the internet and other media can often provide non structured education. First love experience occurs at school age, and school has human and material resources for providing education. Sex education at schools contributes to its promotion in the home environment. Sex education has been shown to delay sexual initiation or increase condom use among those who are already sexually active. A recent Portuguese study reported that nearly 90% of those surveyed said sex education at school was very important and 87% believed it should be mandatory. Statement of the Problem This study intends to close the gap in knowledge regarding sexuality education because there’s a pressing need to raise the level of information among the young people especially those who are already embarking on sexually active life. It can help to prevent physical, psychological, marital and social problems related to sex. Young people get information about sex and sexuality from a wide range of sources including each other, their parents, and teacher, through the media, magazines, books and websites. Some of these sources give accurate information while others do not. Myths and misconceptions about sex and sexuality acquired by secondary school students from wrong sources may be carried throughout life and passed on to their offspring. It is however been documented that when young people are well informed, there is a delay in the age of onset of sexual activities and increased use of preventive measures against STDs and pregnancy amongst those already sexually active. This led to an overall reduction in teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study is to investigate on teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education in secondary schools. It is the aim of this study to cover these misconceptions about teaching sexuality education in secondary schools in its analytical sense. It also seeks to find out the various ways in which sex education can be taught, who to teach, importance and challenges of sexuality education. It will no doubt provide information in the school curriculum. Significance of the Study This study is imperative for adolescent boys and girls as it will aid them to have access to sexual health information, make informed decision that will guarantee them a reputable future and acquire life skills to deal with sexuality and relationships in satisfactory and responsible manner. Religious organisations, policy makers, educators, parents and community/opinion leaders will find recommendations from this study useful as it will guide them in formulating effective policies in favour of sex education in schools, intensify campaigns on the need to include sex education in school curriculums, debunk any myths and misconceptions concerning sex education in schools in African societies and facilitate equitable access to sexual and reproductive health education. Sexual and reproductive health is nowadays also highly at the global level. Three of the eight internationally accepted Millennium Development Goals (MDG 3 on gender equality, MDG 5 on maternal health and MDG6 which include HIV/AIDS) are directly related to it. Hence, this study will also serve as a panacea to the attainment of these universal development goals. Data generated from this study will be informative to the government, non-government and the public health system in planning and implantation of sustainable sexuality education programs in schools. Finally, the study would primary serve as a baseline survey for further research on sexuality education and health. Research Questions The study on teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education in secondary schools In Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State aroused the following questions: 1. What is the influence of gender on teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education? 2. Does religion influence the teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education? 3. Does socio-cultural factor influence teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education? 4. How does the age of student affect the teachers and students perception of the teaching of sexuality education? Delimitation/ Scope of the Study This project work is delimitated to some selected secondary schools in Ikpoba Okha local government area of Edo state. The researcher centred the study to the appropriate age given by the Federal Ministry of Education to teach sexuality education in secondary schools. Limitation of the Study Gathering accurate information from the secondary schools posed as a difficult task as most of the schools administration officers withheld student’s personal record. A major limitation of this project work was “hallow effect” where student’s sincerity level was questionable due to the nature of the topic. This was accustomed for their level of pretence in trying to maintain their pride and “look good” before their friend and colleagues. Definition of Terms · Adolescents: a young person in the process of developing from a child into an adult. · Misconceptions: a conclusion that’s wrong because it’s based on faulty thinking or fact that is wrong. · Perception: the way you think about or understand someone or something. · Policies: a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by an organisation or individual. · Secondary schools: the education teaching of children between the ages 10 to 18. · Taboo: an activity that is forbidden or scared based on religious belief or morals.