This study was conducted to assess the perception and attitude of women attending the antenatal clinic at central hospital towards caesarean sectionbetween 25th of September to 20th of September 2014 at central hospital Sapele road Benincity,Edo state.The study is a descriptive non experimental study carried out amongst 155 clients in the antenatal clinic interviewed with a structured questionnaire that solicited information’s about their socio demographic characteristics, their perceptions , attitude and factors influencing their attitude towards caesarean section ,the women had a very good awareness about C/S 155(100% ) ,however only 59 (38%) thinks it is not an abnormal way of having babies while 65.2% could accept it only if life was threatened. logistics shows that cultural perceptions and level of education were associated with non-acceptance of caesarean section .there is a need for programs and avenues through which cultural perception s would be debunked addressing each cultural beliefs and community understanding so that the women’s perceptions may be modified and C/S can be accepted as a method of delivery in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content-------vi
List of abbreviations-------ix
List of figures--------x
List of tables--------xi
1.1 Background of the study------1
1.2 Statement of the problem------3
1.3 Objectives of the study------3
1.4 Significance of study------4
1.5 Limitation of the study------4
1.6 Research question /hypothesis-----5
1.7 Scope of study-------5
1.8 Operational definition of terms-----6
2.1perceived reasons why C/S is rejected ---10
2.2Types of C/S and their indications----11
2.2.1Contra Indications for C/S-----12
2.3Risk and Complications-----13
2.3.1Complications for Infants-----13
2.3.2Long term risk of C/S------14
2.4Conceptual theoretical framework ----14
3.5 Sampling techniques------20
3.6Instruments for data collection----23
3.7Validity /reliability of instruments.----23
3.8Method of data collection ------23
3.9Method of data analysis.-----24
4.0ANALYSIS OF DATA-----25
4.1Formulae for testing hypothesis ----36
5.1Discussion of findings-----39
5.2Implication for nursing ------40
5.6Suggestion for further study-----43
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
W.H.O: World Health Organization
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE A (representing the age distribution of the respondents)-25
FIGURE B: Representing the religious distribution of the respondents26
FIGURE C: Showing the respondent’s tribe---27
FIGURE D: Showing respondent’s marital status---28
FIGURE E: Representing respondent’s level of education-29
LIST OF TABLES
Sample questionnaire for data collection
Formula for calculating sample size
Formula for testing hypothesis
Ethical approvalCHAPTER ONE
The menstrual cycle is the cycle of natural changes that occurs in the uterus and ovary as an essential part of making sexual reproduction possible. (Lentz et al., 2012) Its timing is governed by endogenous(internal) biological cycles. The menstrual cycle is essential for the production of eggs, and for the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy. (Lentz et al., 2012) The cycle occurs only in fertile female humans and other female primates. In human females, the menstrual cycle occurs repeatedly between the ages of menarche, when cycling begins, until menopause, when it ends.
In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies greatly among women (ranging from 21 to 35 days), with 28 days designated as the average length. (Anderson et al., 2003) Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle).[Anderson et al., 2003].
The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase whereas the uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase, and secretory phase. Both cycles are controlled by the endocrine system and the normal hormonal changes that occur can be interfered with using hormonal contraception to prevent reproduction. (Klumpet al., 2013)
By convention, the length of an individual menstrual cycle in days is counted starting with the first day of menstrual bleeding. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens. Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay ofhormones, and after several days one or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg, in an event called ovulation. After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization while the remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone. Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy. If implantation does not occur within approximately two weeks, the corpus luteum will involute, causing sharp drops in levels of both progesterone and estrogen. The hormone drop causes the uterus to shed its lining and egg in a process termed menstruation (Klumpet al., 2013)
In the menstrual cycle, changes occur in the female reproductive system as well as in other bodily systems (which can lead to breast tenderness or mood changes, for example). A woman's first menstruation is termed menarche, and occurs typically around age 12-13. The end of a woman's reproductive phase of life is called the menopause, and this commonly occurs somewhere between the ages of 45 and 55 (Sioba´n D et al., 2004).
The menstrual cycle is characterized by cyclical fluctuations in the levels of FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone The hormones are known to have an effect on oxygen carrying capacity, immune response, bleeding and also changes in serum electrolytes which may be responsible for variable physical, psychological symptoms and autonomic changes. It is suggested that stressful situations during ovulatory periods and menstruation may cause increased 17-hydroxy corticosterone levels with resulting eosinopenia (Feuring M et al., 2002) Platelet function is periodically altered during the ovarian cycle due to the influence of progesterone and estrogen on Von Willebrand factor concentrations (Sioba´n D et al., 2004). Ovarian hormones influence almost all the systems of the body.
They are known to alter the immune system like depression of the suppressor T cell activity Human & animal studies suggest that there is a change in the distribution of immune cells during different phases of menstrual cycle (Pehlivanoglu B et al., 2001) 5–20% of women reporting severe dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) which may be associated with reproductive morbidities like infection (Sioba´n D et al., 2004), thus estimation of leucocyte count is an important tool. Females have more asthma throughout the reproductive years. Female sex steroids are pro-inflammatory and will increase the susceptibility to atopy(Sioba´n D et al., 2004),.
Red blood cell (RBC)indicesassist in classifying anemias. In general,besuretofullyassess apatient’snutritional status andconsultadietitianforfurther workupand interventionas appropriate. Wound healingcan begrossly affectedbynutritionalanemias,andpatientsmayrequireiron, zinc, and vitaminCsupplementsto promote surgicalwoundhealing.Patients will also re- quire teaching andneed encouragementtoinclude iron rich foods such asliver, red meat, raisins, peas, apricots,kidney beans, andfortifiedcerealsandbreads intheir diets (Sioba´n D et al., 2004).
Platelets are irregularly shaped, disk-like fragments of their precursor cell, the megakaryocyte. They are one fourth to one third the size of erythrocytes (1.5–3.0 μm). As megakaryocytes develop, they undergo a process of fragmentation that results in the release of over 1,000 platelets per cell. Several factors stimulate megakaryocytes to release platelets within the bone marrow sinusoids. This includes the hormone thrombopoietin, which is mainly generated by the liver and the kidneys and released in response to low numbers of circulating platelets. Platelets have no defined nucleus but possess important proteins, which are stored in intracellular granules and secreted when platelets are activated during coagulation.
Platelet adherence can be initiated by a variety of substances. For instance, factors released by platelets cause the upregulation of adherence proteins (integrins) on endothelial cells. One critical substance released by endothelial cells and also megakaryocytes is called von Willebrand factor. It enhances platelet adhesion to the endothelium by forming a bridge between platelet surface receptors and collagen in the subendothelial matrix. The most common hereditary bleeding disorder is von Willebrand disease, caused by an inherited deficiency of the factor. Ruptured cells at the site of tissue injury release adenosine diphosphate (ADP), causing the aggregation of more platelets, which are, in turn, stabilized by fibrinogen. Clinically, penicillin in high doses can coat platelets and prevent aggregate formation.
Damage to the vasculature quickly leads to massive bruising and, if unrepaired, to extreme blood loss and consequent organ failure.The blood’s response to blood vessel injury can be viewed as four…
Hemostasis (the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel) can be organized into four separate but interrelated events: compression and vasoconstriction; the formation of a temporary loose platelet plug (also called primary hemostasis); formation of the more stable fibrin clot (also called secondary hemostasis), and finally, clot retraction and dissolution.
The four steps are explained in more detail in the following sectionsSherwood et al.,2013).
Aim and Objectives
In this present study the Aim and Objectives of this study is to correlate the effect of Menstruation on the internal hemostasis and platelet function in female student of child bearing ages who experience normal menstrual cycle as an adjunct to determine the deleterious or the indifferent effect of the menstrual phases, blood losses during menstrual cycle on the platelet consistency.