MOTIVATION AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY, ENUGU) ABSTRACT This work was aimed on motivation and employee productivity with particular reference to Nigerian Bottling Company Enugu. Questionnaire was prepared and administered to the randomly selected staff of the company and simple percentage was used to analyze the data obtained from the respondents. Results show that, as at time of this research the Nigerian Bottling Company does not take the motivation of its workforce seriously. Lack of adequate staff motivation causes staff discrimination and this result to low and declining productivity. Another factor that causes low and declining productivity was job insecurity occasioned by frequent staff rationalization exercise i.e. reduction of workforce as well as frequent delay in staff remuneration. The manager of the company as a matter of urgent should create a conducive work environment to motivation all enable their employees actualizes their potentials, staff promotion and other incentives as a motivational inducement. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the study 1.2 Statement of Problem 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.4 Research Questions 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Scope of the study 1.7 Limitations of the study 1.8 Definition of terms CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature Review 2.1 Definition of motivation 2.2 Theories of Motivation 2.3 Summary of Literature CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Research Design and Methodology 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Area of study 3.3 Population of study 3.4 Sample/Sampling Technique 3.5 Instrument of Data Collection 3.6 Validity of Instrument 3.7 Reliability of Instrument 3.8 Method of Data Collection 3.9 Method of Data Analysis CHAPTER FOUR 4.0 Data presentation and analysis CHAPTER FIVE 5.0 Summary of findings, recommendations and conclusion 5.1 Summary of Findings 5.2 Recommendations 5.3 Conclusion 5.4 Suggestion for further study References Appendices CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behaviour. Motivation is also the driving force by which we achieve our goals.Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting or a desired object, goal, state of being, ideal or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, Motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism. Motivation is related to but distinct from emotion. MOTIVATION CONCEPTS Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself and exists within the individual rather than relying on any external pressure. Intrinsic motivation has been studied by social and educational psychologists since the early 1970s. Research has found that it is usually associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. Explanations of intrinsic motivation have been given in the context of Fritz Heiders attribution theory Bandura’s work on self-efficacy and Deci and Ryan’s cognitive evaluation theory, for example, Students are likely to be intrinsically motivated if they: A. Attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control (e.g. the amount of effort they put in). B. Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (i.e. the results are not determined by luck). C. Are interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Extrinsic motivation comes from outside of the individual. Common extrinsic motivations are rewards like money and grades, coercion and threat of punishment. Competition is in general extrinsic because it encourages the performer to win and beat others, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity. A crowd cheering on the individual and trophies are also extrinsic incentives. Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition and to children who received no extrinsic reward. Self-determination theory also proposes that extrinsic motivation can be internalized by the individual if the task fits with their values and beliefs and therefore helps to fulfill their basic psychological needs. CONTROLLING MOTIVATION The control of motivation is only understood to a limited extent. There are many different approaches of motivation training but many of these are considered pseudoscientific by critics. To understand how to control motivation, it is first necessary to understand why many people lack motivation. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION Workers in a company, an organization, industries etc, needs something to keep them working. Most times the salary of the employee is enough to keep him or her working for an organization company, industries etc. However, sometimes just working for salary is not enough for employees to stay at working place. An employee must be motivated to work for an efficient productivity. If no motivation is present then that employee’s quality of work or all work in general will deteriorate. When motivating an employee, you can use general motivational strategies or specific motivational appeals. General motivational strategies include soft sell versus, hard sell strategies and personality type. Soft sell strategies have logical appeals, emotional appeals, advice and praise. Hard sell strategies have barter, out numbering, pressure and rank. Also, you can consider basing your strategy on your employee’s personality. Specific motivational appeals focus on provable facts, feeling, right and wrong, employee rewards and employee threats. At lower levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, such as physiological needs. Money is a motivator however, it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period (in accordance with Herzberg’s two factor model of motivation). At higher levels of the hierarchy and a sense of belonging are far more powerful motivators than money, as both Abraham Maslow’s theory of motivation and Douglas McGregor’s theory X and theory Y. Maslow has money at the lowest level of the hierarchy and shows other needs are better motivators to staff. Mc Gregory places money in his theory X category and feels it is a poor motivator, praise and recognition are considered stronger motivators than money. A. Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job. B. Motivated employees are more quality oriented. C. Motivated workers are more productive. The average workplace is about midway between the extremes of high threat and high opportunity. Motivation by threat is a dead end strategy and naturally staffs are more attracted to the opportunity side of the motivation curve than the threat side. Motivation is a powerful tool in the work environment that can lead to employees working at their most efficient levels of production. Nonetheless, Steinmetz also discusses three common character types of subordinates, the are; ascendant, indifferent and ambivalent who all react and interact uniquely and must be treated, manage and motivation according. An effective manager must understand how to manage all characters and more importantly must utilize avenues that allow room for employees to work, grow and find answers independently. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Motivation of employee is a subject of considerable concern to management in both principle and public organization. There are labour to exist low morale disillusionment and lacks of dedication to duty among the workers employees. The real value of the salaries of salary earner’s have plummeted because of the goods occasioned by bad economy, these salary earners feel unduly exploited. This situation leads to lack of indiscipline. These psychological and emotional problems precipitated negative attitudes part of the workers. As a result of these problems, they never be serious in their working place. Finally, when workers are not adequately motivated they bound the achievement of the company goals as they feel that the job is not worth all the suffering. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The overriding objectives of this study is to review the way by which workers of Nigerian Bottling Company Enugu situated at 9th Mile Corner Ngwo, Enugu can be motivated. EFFECT WOULD BE MADE 1. To ascertain what type of motivation of workers needs can be motivated with extrinsic reward or combination. 2. To examine the various type of motivation and their implications to both the employees and to ascertain the best approach for employee’s motivation. 3. To examine the effect of motivation and non-motivator on workers morale dedication to duty and productivity. 4. The study should also look into the factors responsible for low morale, absences, lack of dedication of duty. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS The following research question was formulated to guide the study. 1. What are the reactions of employees towards motivation or non-motivation? 2. Does motivation or non-motivation or combination of both a successful path towards increased productivity by employees? 3. What extent are the salary segregation between department and another.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The effectiveness of any company depends on its ability to motivate and reward adequately and fair motivation leads to high productivity, high morale and dedication to duty among the employees. The present study is essential in that it is hoped that the output of this study will help the Nigerian Bottling Company 9th Mile Ngwo, Enugu management indeed to identify areas of lapses on their parts, its effects on employees motivation and adopt more human attitude towards their workers. 1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY This study carried a research on Nigerian Bottling Company, 9th Mile Corner Ngwo, Enugu. It focused on attitude of employees when they are adequately motivated. The Nigerian Bottling Company 9th Mile Corner Ngwo Enugu has staff strength of about 1,500 (one thousand, five hundred) employees at this research, but a representative sample at all categories or departments was selected using stratified random sampling techniques. 1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS The usage of the following terms in this project is limited to their meaning as given in the following definitions. 1. MORALE This refers to the attitude and feeling of employees towards their establishment and working relationship. 2. MANAGEMENT This is the process of getting things done through others to achieve the company goals or objectives. 3. MOTIVATION This means the factor or reason that stimulates action, mainly or external factors that stimulates reaction in person. 4. PRODUCTIVITY This is the reaction of useful result obtained to the resources expanded in obtaining them. Productivity of labour denotes or indicates efficiency or physical output par man-hour. 5. SALARY This stands for compensation for work. It can be paid weekly, monthly, or annually. 6. STRATIFIED SAMPLING This is a method of sampling where by heterogeneous population is divided into states or layer, in such a away that each stratum or layer is made homogenous and then sampled at random. 7. MOTIVES This term refers to that which causes an organism to act. In general, when we speak of motives it means the causes or reasons that underline a given behaviour. 8. NEEDS Physiologically, the term “needs” refers to a condition of :lack” or “deficiency” in a person or other organisms. 9. EMPLOYEE An employee is any person who has undertaken to place his gainful activity in return for remuneration, under the direction and control of another who may be an individual, a private or public organization. 10. MANAGER This term defined as company or a person that pays people to work for them. It also one who control or direct a worker under an express or contract of higher and pays the workers salaries or wages. 11. FRINGE BENEFITS This term stands for other benefits the employee received outside his statutory or basic salary.
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