Nigeria is currently facing myriad of social problems of monumental proportions. Some of these social problems which appear to have emanated majorly from loss of civic values include cult activities, armed robbery, violence, examination misconduct, disobedience, and terrorist attacks, among others. The perceived neglect of civic training to the Nigerian youth over the years might have been the cause of these social ills. It therefore seems that civic education, which needs to be handled by teachers that have positive self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards it, is now the apparent antidote required to save Nigerian youth from the menace of these social problems. This study therefore investigated Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards civic education as correlates ofeffective teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
The descriptive survey research type, which is “ex-post facto” in nature, was adopted for the study. A total number of 600 subjects, selected through stratified simple randomly sampling technique participated in the study. Eight research questions and hypotheses were formulated and tested at .05 level of significance to guide the study. Three self-designed instruments namely ‘’Social Studies Teachers’ Attitude Towards Civic Education Curriculum Scale’’, ‘’Social Studies Teachers’ Self-Efficacy of Civic Education Curriculum Scale’’, and ‘’Civic Education Curriculum Scale’’ were used to collect relevant data. These were validated and with reliability Cronbach Alpha values of .85(SSTATCECS), .76(SSTSECECS) and .83 (CECS) respectively. Simple per centages, Multiple Regression Analysis, Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient, Independent t- test and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for data analysis.
Finding shows that Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards civic education explained 20.3% of the total variance in the dependent variable (Adjusted R Square=.203). Also, the two variables Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy (β=.356; p<.05) and attitudes towards civic education (β=.149; p<.05) contributed differentially and significantly to the dependent variable. Furthermore, there is a moderate, positive and significant relationship between Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy (r=.435; p<.05); attitudes to civic education (r=.337; p<.05) and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria. Finding further reveals a significant difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum based on Social Studies teachers’ academic qualifications (F-value=7.963; p<.05), gender (t=6.479; df=598; p<.05); and category of school (t=-2.446; df=598; p<.05).
Conclusively, the two variables are quite relevant and important towards the determination of the effective teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State public and private senior secondary schools. It was therefore, recommended among other things that Social Studies teachers should pay serious attention to the two selected factors since they both made significant contributions to the teaching of civic education curriculum. Also, there is the need for Social Studies teachers in Oyo State senior secondary schools to upgrade their academic qualifications through further education. Finally, Oyo State public senior secondary schools need to be properly funded, supervised and staffed with professionally qualified Social Studies teachers in order to achieve the objectives of civic education curriculum.
Background to the Study
In Nigeria and the world over, education is a means of achieving a nation’s objectives. Education may be viewed as the transmission of what is worthwhile from generation to generation. It is the various ways in which a society creates and utilizes knowledge, including factual information and occupational skills as well as cultural norms and values, to its members. Education is also a life-long process, which transforms the life of an individual from that of helpless and dependent creature to a self-reliant, rational and skillful person who can contribute positively to the development of his society. It is the aggregate of all the means by which human beings develop the necessary skills, attitudes and values that are socially acceptable (Akinbote, 1988).
Globally, education is perceived as a life transforming activity, which empowers its receivers to make concrete contributions to the development of a society. The transforming potential of education has informed the adoption of various policies by government in its planning and delivery patterns. In most developing countries, basic education has been adopted so as to make sure that educational services are provided to as many that are willing and ready to consume it as possible. The reason is to make sure that skills and knowledge are provided for young people for their personal development and their societies. The paramount goals of government and non-government agencies in developing countries is nation building and nation cannot be built if the lives of her youths who are leaders of tomorrow lack those values and traits of good and effective citizenship. Therefore, in order to create a society where there is unity, tolerance, honesty, cooperation, respect for human dignity and patriotism, there is the need to inculcate in the citizens those traits and values of effective citizenship.
Changes are most often effected through the educational system of the nation involving various reform programmes and curriculum development. It is a polyvalent agent for the transmission of appropriate values, norms, ideals and skills to the young ones.It entails training and acquisition of special skills, knowledge, attitudes and values needed by an individual to be responsible, and which will enable him to contribute his own quota to the growth of the society. Education is considered a potent instrument for change and development. Iyewarun (1989) asserted that education is an instrument by which young members are brought up and socialized so as to become useful and active members of the society. Cookey (1970) perceived education as a means of inculcating right type of value, self-reliance, responsibility moral uprightness, and civic dispositions for the betterment of the individual and the society.
Nigeria is facing many social problems of monumental proportions. Some of these problems include cult activities, armed robbery, violence, indiscipline, examination misconduct, disobedience, terrorist attack, and other unpatriotic practices. The socio-political and economic problems emanate majorly from loss of civic values and unpatriotic tendencies demonstrated by some Nigerian citizens. This is the reason why training for effective citizenship should be one of the main goals of the Nigerian education. Civic education is capable of inculcating in the learners those values, attitudes and skills that will enable them to live patriotic and democratic lives and also contribute meaningfully to the progress of the nation.
The neglect of civic training for years at the primary school level has negative effect on the attitudes of the youths. It is therefore not surprising today, to see some of the youths engaging in immoral, criminal and anti-social behaviours. In the light of this, the re-introduction of civic education into the Nigerian schools, right from the foundation level will help to develop in the citizens, desirable social norms and national ethics since the primary schools level is the basic foundation for other stages of the educational system, thus, the pupils will grow up to become responsible adults. Falade (2008) had earlier remarked that the early years (primary and secondary school levels) are important for the development of civic values and traits.
Akindele (1994) argued that the cohesive, socialist type of democracy and self-reliance which the Nigerians want will not drop from the sky while they are sleeping. It will not be handed to them as a gift by anybody rather, Nigeria needs to celebrate a period of nationhood, a period of sustained democracy with democratic freedoms and practices effectively institutionalized. To achieve this, it is important not to ignore the role of education as a veritable tool in establishing democratic citizenship in the country. The struggle for political emancipation cannot be achieved through political parties. It can only come through the people’s own political struggle and through the right type of education. In effect, civic education values play prominent roles in producing a responsible citizen and in maintaining the country’s democracy and ensuring its survival for future generations.
The concept of civic education has for long been taught in Social Studies in Nigerian schools. As a matter of fact, there is a broad consensus among Social Studies educators that the core mission of Social Studies curriculum is education for democratic citizenship (Ajitoni, 2007). There is an appropriate place for civic education at all levels of learning. Falade (2009) have recognized that the secondary school years is an important time in the development of civic roles and responsibilities.
Civic education, whenever and however undertaken, prepares the people of a country, especially the young ones to carry out their roles as responsible citizens. Civic education is therefore, political education or as Falade (2008) described it, ‘the cultivation of the virtues, knowledge, and skills necessary for political participation’. The ideals and values which are rooted in civic education emerged about a century ago as kind of panacea for solving problems confronting humankind (Banks, 2005). The belief in many quarters is that the adoption or adaptation of the ideals and values intrinsic in this kind of education could go a long way in ameliorating or solving the problems arising from human’s inhumanity to other humans (Kazi, 2004; Mezieobi, 1993).
It was perhaps, in the light of the foregoing that the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN) in the National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004) stressed that the philosophy of education for the country should be geared towards equipping the learner to cultivate values of effective citizenship and civic responsibility. The policy asserts that the philosophy behind all forms of instructions in schools should be measured in terms of roles in producing citizens with skills, competencies, moral values and reasoned judgments to effectively live, interact, interrelate and contribute positively to economic, social, political and cultural development of the Nigerian society. This, in a way is all about civic education.
The dire need for institutionalized civic education probably propelled the Federal Government of Nigeria to carve out another subject from Social Studies and name it ‘’Civic Education’’. Civic Education also becomes more important when it is remembered that during the 1990s, there was an unprecedented global dissemination of information about the theory and practice of democracy and civic education for democracy (Banks, 2005). Educators throughout the world today are recognizing that civic education implies teaching and learning the principles and practice of democratic governance and citizenship. Thus, the interrelated components of civic education – civic knowledge, civic virtue, and civic skills are essential things to be acquired by individuals in a democracy. Kazi (2004) remarked that it is a commitment to such value-dimensions of civic education as cooperation, confidence, trustworthiness, integrity, consideration, hard-work, interdependence and loyalty that has contributed in the building and establishment of the great nations and democracies of the world.
Over the years, Nigeria has been bedeviled with such social vices such as examination malpractices, sexual perversion, drug abuse, economic sabotage, corruption, robbery, kidnapping, HIV-AIDS, environment pollution, cultism, prostitution, indiscipline, violence etc. It was in order to tackle these vices that successive governments in the country have initiated one programme or the other with view to tackling such vices. Amongst such programmes are the National Youth Service Corp (NYSC), War Against Indiscipline and Corruption (WAIC), National Orientation Agency (NOA), Mass Mobilization for Self Reliance, social Justice and Economic Recovery (MAMSER), Citizenship and Leadership Training Centre (Man-O-War). These various programmes contain the elements of citizenship education. However, it seems that the people are not addressing the societal problems appropriately, because rather than improving, the society continues to deteriorate or in decadence (Emilefo, 2001).
This leads to the urgent need to cultivate in the students, national values of honesty, obedience, handwork, tolerance, national consciousness, and unity, the spirit of patriotism, faith and active participation in democratic process and to ensure that learners are sound in morals and attitude. This informed the Federal government directive that schools should re-introduce the teaching of civic education (Jekayinfa, Mofoluwawo, &Oladiran, 2011).The necessity of re-introducing civic education at foundation level of education in Nigeria arose due to the prevalence of indiscipline, dwindling national consciousness and patriotic zeal, lack of social harmony in different to duty, disrespect for the rule of law, civic strive, moral decadency. This manifestation of negative trends in the Nigeria society became evidence since 1980 when civic was removed from the school curriculum, the country was thus facing the threat of losing the much cherished sense of nationhood, cultural identity and hospitality spirit (Adeniran, 2009).
The foregoing is largely instrumental to the emergence and teaching of civic education in Nigeria schools in recent times. The main philosophy behind the teaching and learning of this curriculum area in schools, according to the National Orientation Agency (NOA) (2006), is the production of effective citizens and of forging a cohesive society that will support a notion of nation building, national development and sustainability by way of classroom mediation of curriculum programmes in the subject area.
The directive to include civic education as a compulsory subject in senior secondary school was given at a time when the Federal Government was carrying out reforms in education. The National Council on Education (NCE) convened meeting at Ibadan, in December 2005, where it directed the National Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) to carry out a review of the existing curriculum for senior secondary school and re-aligned them to fit the reform being made in education. Between January 2007 and March 2008, NERDC convened a meeting of experts, and several workshops were organized to produce the senior secondary school curricula, which would ensure continuity and flow of themes, topics and experiences from SSS1 to SSS3. It is from this exercise that the new curriculum came into existence in 2009 (NERDC 2009).
It is obvious that the development and progress of any nation depends largely on the values, attitudes and skills possessed by the citizens, civic education is highly essential in the process of nation building, in that it helps to bring back the traditional values and virtues such as honesty, obedience, cooperation, self-reliance integrity, discipline, courage and the like that have been eroded in our society. All forms of indiscipline and moral laxity can be corrected and drastically reduced to the barest minimal through the teaching of civic education, which go a long way in promoting responsible citizenship. Civic education is apparently the antidote required to save Nigeria from the menace of lack of integrity, danger of insecurity and all manner of indiscipline troubling the country.
Belief in one’s efficacy is a key personal resource to self-development and successful adaption to change. Self-efficacy operates through its impact on the domains of learning. Efficacy show whether individuals think optimistically or pessimistically, in self-enhancing or self-debilitating ways. It affects people’s goals and aspirations, self-motivation and perseverance. According to Bandura (2001), people ought to believe they can produce desired effects by their actions so that they can persevere in the face of difficulties. He further states that whatever other factors serve as guides and motivators to performance, they are rooted in the core belief that one has the ability to effect changes by one’s actions.
Ormord (2006) referred to self-efficacy as the belief that one is capable of performing tasks in certain ways to certain goals. Furthermore, Bandura (2001) affirmed that self-efficacy is one’s belief in one’s ability to succeed in specific situations. Self-efficacy is a construct that deals with one’s perception that one is capable of doing what is necessary to reach set goals in terms of knowing what to do and being emotionally capable of doing it (Pajares&Schunk, 2001). Self-efficacy shapes people’s expectations, whether or not they expect their efforts to produce favourable outcomes or adverse ones. It also determines how environmental opportunities and impediments are viewed.
People of low self-efficacy are easily convinced for the futility of their effort in the face of difficulties and quickly give up trying while those of high self-efficacy view impediments as surmountable by self-development and perseverance, and they stay on course in the face of difficulties and remain resilient to adversity. Self-efficacy affects the quality of emotional life and the level of vulnerability to stress and depression. Lastly, it determines the choices people make at important decisional points (Pajares, 2002). Jink, Lorsbach and Morey (2000) believe that self-efficacy will be enhanced if learning experiences ascend in difficulty and sequence. They further state that if students collaborate and they are given opportunities to participate in small group activities, it will also boost their self-efficacy. James, Sottile, Carter and Murphy (2002) opined that if teachers are provided with professional development, the self-efficacy increases.
Attitude is a psychological concept that means what an individual thinks and feels about something. Allport (1999) defined attitude as the most indispensable concept in social-psychology, the study of them has remained central. According to him an “attitude as a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive and dynamic influence upon the individuals response to all object and situations with which it is related.” Lovell (1994) said “attitude is a super inclination towards a certain types of object, institution or idea” Krech and Crutchfield (2000) defined attitude as an enduring organization of motivation, emotional, perceptual and cognitive process with respect to some aspect of the individuals world. Also, Mukhejee (2002) defined attitude on ones feelings, thoughts and predisposition to behave in some particular manner towards some aspects of one’s environment”. Attitudes are best expressed when individuals make statement about their feelings or opinions about certain object, issue or things. Furthermore, Thomas and Znanreki (1991) saw attitude as individual mental process that determines the actual and potential response of each person in the social world, while Schuman (1995) defined attitude as single evaluation of an object “Objects” includes people, things, events and issue.
When an individual has interest or positive feelings towards any object, he/she behaves favourably towards the object. One of the factors that probably could influence the acceptance of a new programme is attitude. For a change to be accepted without much resistance, the recipient’s attitude of the need to change should be positive. Teachers are seen as the most important agent of change within the classroom arena or to any government policy. Social studies teachers’ attitudes are important factors and should be positive in the successful implementation of the new civic education in Nigeria.
Teacher’s characteristicsare major determinants of student’s achievement (Okonkwo, 2000). Darling (2000) observed that variables indicative of teachers' competence are believed to have links to students’ achievement include qualification, self-efficacy beliefs and years of teaching experience. The review of Darling (2000) indicated that teachers improve year after year through in service training thereby improving in knowledge, skills and techniques of teaching.Based on this background, this present study investigatedSocial Studies teachers’ self-efficacy, attitudes towards civic education and the effective teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Statement of the Problem
In recent times, the waves of social ills and unpatriotic activities such as bribery, corruption, kidnapping, assassination, indiscipline, violence, cultism, thuggery, neglect of civic duties and obligationsand unpleasant bomb blastare on the increase in Nigeria.Nduka (2004) observed that Nigerians exhibitdeplorable ethical attitudes in virtually every aspect of life such that students are no longer acquiring requisite knowledge and skills which they need to become good and effective citizens. It appears such values and virtues as honesty, obedience, respect, loyalty, justice, fair play and humility to mention a few have been lost. The perceived neglect of civic training to the Nigerian youth over the years might have been the cause of these social ills. It therefore seems that Civic education, which needs to be handled by teachers that have positive self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards it, is now the apparent antidote required to save Nigerian youth from the menace of these social problems. Could it also be that the teachers handling civic education in our secondary schools do not possess positive self-efficacy beliefs and attitudinal dispositions to the effective teaching of the subject? This study therefore investigated Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards civic education as correlates of effective teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this study is to investigate Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy, attitudes towards civic education and the effective teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.The study is specifically designed:
1. To investigate the composite effects of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education when taken jointly, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
2. To find out the relative effects of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education when taken individually, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
3. To examine the relationship between Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
4. To determine the relationship between Social Studies teachers’ attitudes to civic education and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
5. To examine the difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum based on Social Studies teachers’ academic qualifications.
6. To examine the gender difference of Social Studies teachers in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum.
7. To find out the difference between experienced and less experienced Social Studies teachers in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum.
8. To explore the difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in public and private schools.
The following research questions were raised and answered in this study in line with the specific purposes of the study.
1. What is the composite effect of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education, when taken jointly, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria?
2. What are the relative effects of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education when taken individually, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria?
3. What is the relationship between Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria?
4. Is there any relationship between Social Studies teachers’ attitudes to civic education and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria?
5. Does the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum differ based on Social Studies teachers’ academic qualifications in Oyo State, Nigeria?
6. Is there any difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum between male and female Social Studies teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria?
7. Do experienced and less experienced Social Studies teachers significantly differ in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria?
8. Is there any difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum by Social Studies teachers in public and private schools in Oyo State, Nigeria?
The following research hypotheses were formulated based on the raised research questions. They were tested at .05 level of significance.
HO1:There is no significant composite effect of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education, when taken jointly, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
HO2: There are no significant relative effects of Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes to civic education when taken individually, on the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
HO3: There is no significant relationship between Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
HO4:Social Studies teachers’ attitudes to civic education and the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria are not significantly related.
HO5:Social Studies teachers’ academic qualifications make no significant difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
HO6:The teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum by male and female Social Studies teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria is not significantly different.
HO7: There is no significant difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria between experienced and less experienced Social Studies teachers.
HO8: There is no significant difference in the teaching of senior secondary school civic education curriculum by Social Studies teachers in public and private schools in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Scope of the Study
This study focuses on Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy and attitudes towards senior secondary school civic education curriculum in Oyo state, Nigeria. Participants in this study were all Social Studies teachers in both public and private at the Senior Secondary School level in Oyo State. The study made use of Social Studies teachers in the three Senatorial Districts of Oyo State.
The study covers Social Studies teachers’ self-efficacy, their attitude, disposition to the content, methods, instructional materials and evaluation strategies of civic education curriculum in senior secondary in Oyo State, Nigeria. Moreover the variable in the study include teacher’s gender, qualification, experience, and school type. Three instruments were designed for the study namely ‘’Social Studies Teachers’ Attitude toward Civic Education Curriculum Scale (SSTATCECS)’’, ‘’Social Studies Teachers’ Self-Efficacy of Civic Education Curriculum Scale (SSTSECECS)’’ and‘’Civic Education Curriculum Scale (CECS)’’.
Definitions of Terms
For the purpose of the study, the following terms are explained as they are used in the study.
Civic Education:In this study, Civic Education means an educational programme that provides the citizenry with knowledge, skills and values necessary for the development of the society. Civic education is concerned with helping students acquire knowledge, attitude, values and basic skills that will help them become responsible and disciplined members of their societies.
Self-efficacy: In this study, self-efficacy is defined as individual's perception of his or her own capabilities for organizing and successfully executing the courses of action required to attain designated types of performance.
Personal teacher efficacy:This is an individual teacher's expectancy in his/her capacity to organize and execute the behaviour needed to complete his/her teaching successfully.
Attitude:This is the personal view or opinion someone has about something. It is someone’s view whether negative or positive to a particular object, ideas or act. In this study, it refers to the teachers’ disposition (positive or negative) to the teaching of the new civic education curriculum in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Areas of Specialization:The disciplines in which, teachers got their certificates, that is, Social Studies, History, Geography, Government, Political Science, Economics etc.
Gender:This refers to being a male or female social studies teacher teaching civic education in senior secondary school.
Qualified Teachers:In this study, are teachers with the requisite-prescribed minimum general and professional qualifications/training in education e.g. B.A. Ed., M.Ed.
Unqualified Teachers:These are teachers without the requisite-prescribed minimum general and professional qualifications/training in education and social studies.
Experienced Teachers:These refer to teachers that have been teaching social studies for more than 5 years in secondary schools.
Less Experienced Teachers:SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS’ SELF-EFFICACY AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CIVIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM