CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND AGENCY PROBLEM IN NIGERIA

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:140
  • Methodology:T- Test Analysis
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Accounting)
CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND AGENCY PROBLEM IN NIGERIA
ABSTRACT

This study seeks to ascertain and critically examine corporate social Responsibility and agency problem in Nigeria.
The objectives of the study are to establish the possibility of agency problems being reduced through creation or CSR commission; to examine the impact of agency problems on organization CSR in Nigeria and to examine the relationship between organization’s corporate social Responsibility and its’ financial performance.
The researcher used the primary data through the administration of questionnaires to sample respondents view and opinion on the subject matter. The results revealed that majority of the responses were in affirmative with the objectives of the study as shown by the descriptive statistics in chapter four.
T – test was used to test the hypotheses raised in the introductory chapter. The test of the hypotheses also affirmed the objectives of this study.
We concluded that there is a great need to resolve and reduce the agency problems in relation to corporate social responsibility in Nigeria so that the financial performance of corporate organization can be guaranteed.   
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1     Background of the Study            
1.2    Statement of the Problem                
1.3    Objectives of the Study                    
1.4    Scope of the Study                    
1.5    Statement of Research Hypothesis            
1.6    Significances of the Study                
1.7    Limitation of the Study                    
    Reference                             
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1     Introduction                    
2.2    Broad Definition of Corporate Social Responsibility
2.3    Overview of Corporate Social Responsibility
 and Agency Problems                    
2.4    Perspective to Corporate Social Responsibility        
2.5    Argument for and Against Social Responsibility        
2.6    Approaches to Social Responsibility        
2.7    Factors Affecting Social Responsibility        
2.8    Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria    
2.9    Agency Theory                        
2.10    Definition Agency Problem            
2.11    Dealing with Agency Problems            
2.12    Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Stakeholders            
2.13    Social Audit                        
    References                         
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction                    
Method/Source of Data Collections        
3.3    Research Instrument                
3.4    The Population of Study            
3.5    The Sample Size                    
3.6    Method of Data Analysis Techniques        
3.7    Research Design                        
    References                         
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.1    Introduction                    
4.2    Descriptive Statistics                    
4.3    The Use of ‘T’ Statistic in Test Of Hypothesis         
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1    Summary                            
5.2    Findings                                
5.3    Conclusion                         
5.4     Recommendations                    
    Bibliography                    
    Appendix                         
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
    For the past few decades, probably no issues has attracted and received more attention by business organization, politicians, government and the public at large than the issue of corporate social responsibility (CSR)  and what the social responsibility of business is. Every business firm is linked with different interest group and which form the stakeholders of the business or firm. These stakeholders or interest group contribute to the growth and survival of the business and hence expected to be compensated through corporate social responsibilities.
    Corporate social responsibility is usually integrated into a business model for an organization to be able to live in harmony with its operating environment. Corporate social responsibility policy functions as a built in self-regulation mechanism for a business entity to monitor and ensure its adherence to laws, ethical, standard, norms and nuances of its environment Prahated (2004), opined that CRS when proactively undertaken promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development and by voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere, regardless of legality. Accordingly he averred that it is the inclusion of public interest into corporate decision making and honouring of a tripe bottom line known as people, planet and profit.
    The global socio-economic climate has developed and emergent system, which responds to corporate and commercial necessities within a defined state or outside of it. The field of international corporate responsibility has assured an important sub-field of business ethics in response to increasing concerns about the ethics conflicts of international business. It includes business conduct, multinational enterprises, corporate responsibility and environmental issues
in developing economies. The recurring demand is that multinational that site operating companies within communities outside their home base should not operate below the standards set by the authorities of their parent companies and should ordinarily have conducted research and investigation of the needs of the host  communities (David, 2008). This goes beyond extending humanitarian assistance or establishment of resources centres in those communities.
    The foregoing brings to the fore corporate social responsibility in Nigeria vis-à-vis the CSR bill before the National Assembly. The most active sector in Nigeria is the oil industry and it is where the Nigeria Government denies over 70 percent of its revenue. The Nigeria oil sector is dominated by big players such as shell, Chevron, Taxacom, Exxon, Mobil and Agip that have extended business interest across the seas into the Geographical confine of the country while the Nigerians state has a strong challenge of abuses of rights by multinational corporations over the year recent interventions by international advocating groups and the unrelenting strugglers of victims of the operations of these oil companies are making them to be more socially responsible (Peterson, 2005).
    Many companies operating in Nigeria have at one time reported that they perform better in their responsibility to the society and that government should gather its loins to perform optimally (Vanguard, 2007). They contended that it is the failure of government to discharge its responsibilities that have made the various communities to be turning the heat on them. In the midst of the cacophonous buck passing a bill on corporate social responsibility is now before the National Assembly. The bill is for an Act to create the corporate social responsibility commission which will be charged with providing standards integration of social responsibility and international trade issue. The Bill seeks to establish a supervisory organ that will mandate corporations and companies to spend 3.5 percent of their profit before tax on CSR.
    There is no doubt that Nigeria is in dive need to development, most of its public infrastructures is collapsing. The business entities are going under. Many companies are relocating to outside of Nigeria (punch 2009). With a array of graft agendas, it is expended by all interest groups and the public at large that corruptions and nepotism would be at their lowest ebb. But unfortunately, corruption, tribalism and electoral malpractices are systemic. So it is vital that the contributions of the growth of the society are encouraged (Anderson, 2009).     However, the prospective and sensitive business climates of Nigeria currently does not permit companies to accede to the compulsory remittance of 3.5
percent of profit to the authorities for social development. It is contended that if companies are to contribute to the community it should be from the voluntary spirit of benevolence and philanthropy. In fact, many policy analysts are concerned about the extent to which a new CSR law would actually change lives in the communities in which the companies operate. Unless there is a radical regeneration of the society and a social rebirth, the law if passed and assented will soon become unrealistic (Ogah, 2009).
    Basically the issue include the practicability and enforcement of such law the creation of another revenue for the corruption and has any others country put in place the type of CSR law Nigeria is contemplating. But it is also believed that such a law many detract from the real issues at hand since companies have practiced CSR for years but still, problems are rampant not only in the Niger-Delta but in every parts of the country caused by the different agency problems (Jones, 2010).
    Most companies from time to time are affected with various agency problems prior to this bill on CRS sent to the National Assembly in Nigeria. These agency problem in terms of CSR have become a major cankerworm to many companies operating in Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study is undertaken by the student, researcher to ascertain the various agency problem militating against company’s CSR in Nigeria. This study also attempt to suggest a better way of reducing this agency problem can be comfortable and satisfied in profit maximization.
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    Agency problem in terms of corporate social responsibility arises when the agent (managers) use the wealth meant for the principal (shareholders) to fulfill their CRS to the detriment of the principal. This obviously have a telling effect on the financial performance of the corporate organization in that substantial act of what supposed to be a return on equity is utilized to achieve the goal of CSR. Many factors are responsible for this. To ascertain the causes of these agency problems and the effects, the following research question have been raised in order to enable the researcher carry out the objective of this study. These research questions are:
Is there a relationship between corporate social responsibility and organization financial performance?
Is there a significant relationship between CSR of an organization and the agency problem in Nigeria?
Does agency problem reduce CSR and organization performance in Nigeria?
Can corporate organization discharge their CSR without agency problem in Nigeria?
Does the failure of the government to discharge its responsibility contributing to t he agency problem in Nigeria?
Can the agency problems be resolved through a deliberate policy by the Nigerian government?
Is an organization socially and financially healthy without taking into consideration the various agencies in Nigeria.
Can the creation of CSR commission help to resolve the agency problem in Nigeria.
1.3    OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
    The objectives of the study are as follows.
To examine the relationship between organizations, corporate social responsibility and its financial performance.
To establish if the agency problems can be reduced through creation of CSR commission.
To examine the impact of agency problems on organization CSR in Nigeria.
To ascertain the relationship between organizations CSR and the various agencies in Nigeria.
To find out if corporate organization can discharge their CSR without the various agencies in Nigeria.
1.4    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This study is aimed at evaluating CSR and agency problem in Nigeria. It seeks to highlight the various agency problems bedeviling CSR of many local and multinational organizations in Nigeria as well as the solution to the problems. As such, it principal lay focuses on the impact of CSR of organization in Nigeria – Delta region of Nigeria as well as the agency problems affecting them. This study pays attention to stakeholders of some selected corporate organization and the general public within Benin City.
1.5    STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
    In other to test the causes and impact of corporate social responsibilities and agency problems in Nigeria, the Null hypothesis (Ho) and the alternative hypothesis (Ha) are used in this study so as to achieve the stated objectives.
Null Hypothesis: There is no negative impact of agency problems on organization corporate social responsibility in Nigeria.
Alternative Hypothesis: There is a negative impact of agency problems on organization corporate social responsibility in Nigeria.
Null Hypothesis: Corporate organization cannot discharge their corporate social responsibility without their various agencies in Nigeria.
Alternative Hypothesis: Corporate organization can discharge their corporate social responsibility without their various agencies in Nigeria.
 Null Hypothesis: The agency problems affecting the discharge of corporate social responsibilities by organizations cannot be reduced by policies and creation of CSR commission in Nigeria.
Alternative Hypothesis: The agency problems affecting the discharge of corporate social responsibilities by organizations can be reduced by policies and creation of CSR commission in Nigeria.
1.6    SIGNIFICANCES OF THE STUDY
    This study is aimed at addressing the agency problems militating against the discharge of corporate social responsibiliti4es by organizations in Nigeria. The study also attempts to uncover the various ways of reducing the agency problems in Nigeria. As such it will assist the establishment and government agencies to be abreast of these problems affecting them in detail in the discharged of CSR as well as the way out of it.  It will be immense help to future researcher and in the academic field and other professions to know the causes, effects and the solution in the terms of the subject matter.
    Finally, it is expected to depict the role of the government at reducing the agency problem affecting organizations in the discharge of their corporate social responsibilities with in the community they are situated or organization in Nigeria.
1.7    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
    There is no study undertaken by any researcher that is entirely perfect. As such this study may not be a perfect one. This is due to some constraints that may affect the student researcher in the cause of the study. These constraints are informed of finance cost, inadequate study material on agency problems in Nigeria and respondents response rate.  
REFERENCES
Adetokunboh, A. (2008)     Environment low and social
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Agbonifoh, B.A and         Agency problems equity
Yomere, G.O. (1999)     Ownership and    Corporate  Diversification Journal of finance
                    vol. 52, pp 135-160.
Anderson, A. (2007)        Research methodology in the
social sciences  Uri publishing limited Nigeria.
Anyiwe, M.A. (1991)         Statistics Handbook for social
scientist Uniben     Press, Benin City.
Bonnazzi, S. (2007)         Agency theory and corporate
government. A study of the Effectiveness of the CEO, Journal of Modeling in Management issue, Emerald group Publishing Limited.
Brenna, M.J. (1994)         Incentives, Rationality and
Society, Journal of Applied Corporate finance, vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 31-39.
Clarke, T. (2004)            Introduction, Theories of
Governance and Social Responsiveness Reconceptualisation of corporate governance theory after the Erwn experience. The philosophical foundations of corporate social responsibility” New York, Routiedge Publishers.   
Collins, J.C. and Porrans    Built to last, successful habits of J.I (1994)                visionary.
David, G. (2008)             The Concept of strategy, a
Journal of Business Ethic, pp 10-21.
Dyrud, P.E. (2007)         The New Meaning of corporate
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 Elkington, J.  (1994)  Cannibals with Forks. The
Triple  Bottom-line of 21st Century Business Oxford, Capstone.
Friedman, M. (1999)         “The social Responsibility of
Business is to increase its profit, New York Times Magazines.
Goyder, J. (2003). The New World of Corporate
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Griffin, R. (1997)            Management 2nd Edition Boston,
                    Houghton Miffin Company.
E. and Ogiedu, K. (2010)     Corporate finance, Benin City.
Mindex Publishing Company Ltd.  
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Jacob, E. (2007)            The Need for CSR in Niger Delta
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Jones, T.M. (2000)          Corporate social responsibility
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Project Details

Department Accounting
Project ID ACC0859
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 140 Pages
Methodology T- Test Analysis
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department Accounting
    Project ID ACC0859
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 140 Pages
    Methodology T- Test Analysis
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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