SOCIAL MEDIA AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN BENSON IDAHOSA UNIVERSITY ABSTRACT The main objective of this research project is to examine the extent to which students in tertiary institutions in Benson Idahosa University (BIU) engage themselves in social media platforms and the relationship between the level of usage of social media applications and platforms and student academic performance in the University. To this end, structured copies of 400 questionnaires were administered to conveniently selected students within the University campus in order to collate data for the purpose of achieving the research objectives. It was discovered that students’ degree of involvement in the University is generally moderate, i.e. not particularly high or low. Also, it was observed that students spend a great deal of time on social networking activities through various social media platforms and mobile applications. More significantly, it could be observed that both the level of use of social media and the amount of time spent on social media had a statistically significant relationship with students’ academic performances. On the basis of the research findings, the author strongly recommended that students should spend their time more wisely on constructive activities such as studying whenever they visit their social network accounts. The author also recommended that students should endeavor to moderate their time spent on social media so that it does not affect their work negatively. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Background To The Study - - - - Statement of the Problem - - - Objectives of the Study - - Research Question - - Research Hypotheses - - 1.6. Significant of the study - - - 1.7. Scope Of The Study - - - - 1.8. Limitations of the Study - - - CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Introduction - - - 2.2. Concept of Social Media - 2.3. An Overview of Social Media - - 2.4. Social Media and the Users - - 2.5. Benefits associated with the Uses of Social Networking Sites 2.6. Criticism of Social Networking Sites - 2.7. The Concept of Student Academic Performance 2.8. Factors affecting Students’ Academic Performance - - 2.9. Measures of Student Academic Performance - - 2.10. Review of Prior Empirical Studies on Social Networking Media and Students’ Performance - - CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction - - - - 3.2 Research Design - - - - - 3.3 Population and Sample Size of the Study - - - 3.4 Operationalization and Measurement of Variables - - 3.5 Research Instrument - - - - - 3.6 Sources of Data - - - - - 3.7 Method of Data Analysis - - - - CHAPTER FOUR:PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.1 Introduction - - - - - - 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Sample Background Variables 4.3Statistical Analysis of Study Objectives with Collated Data 4.4 Hypothesis Testing - - - - - 4.5 Discussion of Findings - - - - CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 Introduction - - - - - 5.2 Summary of Findings - - - - 5.3 Conclusion - - - - - - 5.4 Recommendation - - - - - 5.4.1 Policy Recommendation/Implication - - - 5.4.2 Further Studies - - - - - REFERENCES - - - - - - APPENDIX - - - - - LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Administration and Retrieval of the Questionnaire - Table 4.1 Demographic Distribution of Respondents - - Table 4.2 Descriptive Analysis of the Level of Social Media Usage among Respondents - - - - Table 4.3 Descriptive Analysis of the Amount of Time Spent on Social Media Table 4.4 Data for Level of Social Media Usage - - Table 4.5 Data for students’ academic performances - - Table 4.6 Pearson Correlation Matrix for Student Performance and Level of Social Media Usage - - - - Table 4.7 Pearson Correlation Matrix for Student Performance and Time Spent on Social Media - - - - - CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND TOTHE STUDY The Communication sector has been one of the major sectors that have contributed to the growth and development among countries of the world over the past decades (Mihaly, 2009). Indeed, the world has transformed into a global village with the adoption of modern technology in communication, but technology just as two side of a coin, has both its pros and cons (Karpinski& Duberstein, 2009). It has been observed that Information Communication Technologies (ICT) makes us better informed, enlightened and helps us to stay abreast with current world development (Andrew, 2005). Inspite of all these, the negative effect of technology abounds in literatures. One means of Information Communication Technology (ICT) that has continued to blur the physical boundaries between nations of the world, and breaking down social borders among the different social strata in the society is the use of social media. Social media has become one of the communication means in recent times.Martn (2008) and Lusk (2010) opined that social media is the use of Facebook, Blogs, Twitter, My Space and LinkedIn for the purpose of communication, sharing photos as well as videos. Social networking exist so as to provide communication among people regardless of the distance, making it open to people easily share information, files and pictures and videos, create blogs and send messages, and conduct real-time conversations. These systems are referred to as social, simply because they allow communication with buddies and co-workers so easily and effectively (Lusk, 2010). Recently, there has been considerable discussion regarding the frequent use of social media tools (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Xanga, Friendster) by university students, and the possible effect of those tools on students’ academic performance (Connolly, 2011; Hargitai, & Hsieh, 2010; Karpinski, & Duberstein, 2009). Higher educational institutions have great fear that students’ academic performance might adversely be affected or improved because of the use of social networking sites by students in tertiary institution. This assertion holds in both developed and developing countries of the world. The core of this debate is on whether the growing use of social media by students in tertiary institutions actually improves or worsens their academic performance. Kubey, Lavin & Barrows (2010) conducted a study on internet use for social reasons and its impact on collegiate academic performance focused on students in the developed world. From the study, it was observed that there was a negative relationship between social media sites and academic performance in selected universities in the United States. Against this background, it is necessary to conduct a study aimed at investigating students’ use of social media sites and application with respect to their impact on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in a developing country like Nigeria. Therefore, this studyinvestigates the impact of social media on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The popularity of social media sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, and Xing, continues to grow, providing people with amazing opportunities to interact through social networks (Hinz, Skiera, Barrot, & Becker, 2011; Junco, 2013; Nadkarni& Hofmann, 2012). This is noticed by the excessive usage of social media. Due to the increased popularity of social media networking, scholars have raised the issue of its impact on student performance (Oghenetega and Ejedafiru, 2014). Various studies have recognized the advantages in the usage of social media in higher education. These advantages include enhancing relationships, improving learning and motivation, offering personalized course material, and developing collaborative abilities (Wheeler, Yeomans, & Wheeler, 2008; Rifkin, Longnecker, Leach, Davis &Ortia, 2009). Oghenetega and Ejedafiru (2014) submitted that social media has a positive impact on communication between people in educational community since the past decades but failed to observe the multiplier effect of social media usage on the academic performance of students. Again, the emergence of social network sites in the 1990s has been shown to have drastically affected the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions (Jacobsen &Forste, 2011). There is a deviation, distraction and divided attention between social networking activities and their academic work. It is observed that students devote more attention to social media than they do to their studies and this has invariably increased the rate of failure among students (Amorji, 2009). The foregoing discussion has highlighted the fact that social media usage has advantages as well as disadvantages such as the suggested negative effect on students’ academic performance. It is against this background that study is being conducted to ascertain the impact of the use of social media on the academic performance of student in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of social media on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions. Specifically, the study seeks to: Assess the level of social media usage among students in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Assess the amount of time spent by students of Nigerian tertiary institutions on various social media. Investigate the nature of the relationship between the level of social media usage activities and students’ academic performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Investigate nature of the relationship between the amount of time spent by students on social media and their academic performances in Nigerian tertiary institutions. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The research questions this study will answer are as follows: What is the level of social media usage among students in Nigerian tertiary institutions? What amount of amount of time is spent by students of Nigerian tertiary institutions on various social media? What is the nature of the relationship between the level of social media usage activities and students’ academic performance in Nigerian tertiary institutions? What is the nature of the relationship between the amount of time spent by students on social media and their academic performances in Nigerian tertiary institutions? RESEARCH HYPOTHESES The following hypotheses stated in their null form will be tested in the course of the study; H01: There is no significant relationship between the level of social media usage and the academic performance of students in Nigerian tertiary institutions? H02: There is no significant relationship between the time spent on social media and the academic performance of students in Nigerian tertiary institutions? SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The research work will enable students to gain proper understanding of social network in Nigerian tertiary schools by increasing and creating awareness of social networking. The favorite in the realm of internet sites are Facebook, Twitter, 2go and others. These websites and social forums are ways of communicating directly with other people in media. They are playing a large and influential role in decision making in the occasions from the global world economically, politically, socially and educationally. The driving factors for the adoption of social media are the progressively ubiquitous access, convenience, functionality and flexibility of social technologies. Also, the study is relevant as it helps scholars and future researchers by providing a basis for undertaking further studies to examine the influence of social media usage on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Nigerian universities. In addition, it introduces students to the diversity of social media as well as the positive and negative effect of the usage of social media. That it exposes students to the benefits as well as the drawbacks on the use of social media sites. It is also relevant to parents as it ensures proper regulation in the use of social media by their wards. SCOPE OF THE STUDY According to Agbonifoh and Yomere (1999), a study may be delimitated on the basis of subject matter, geographical scope and time frame. The essence of this research work is to primarily study the influence of social media on the academic performance of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The geographical scope of the study is Edo State, particularly Benson Idahosa University. In terms of time, the study may be referred to as a cross-sectional study because it employs primary data obtained from respondents as at the present year the research during which the research will be conducted. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Admittedly, a number of factors acted as constraints to this study. In the first place, the fact that the sample is drawn from one particular area, on the basis of which generalized conclusions are made is in itself a limiting factor. In the same vein, the use of structured questionnaire as a tool to elicit respondents’ responses and unwillingness of respondents to fill the questionnaire objectively as well as the reliability and validity of the research instrument serves as a limitation.
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