PROBLEMS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY AMONG THE URHOBOS

  • Chapters:4
  • Pages:70
  • Methodology:Descriptive
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(English)
PROBLEMS OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY AMONG THE URHOBOS
TABLE CONTENTS
Chapter One: Background to the Study
Introduction
Aim and Objectives of the Study
Significance of Study
Scope of the Study
Methodology
Literature Review
Endnotes
Chapter Two: Traditions of Origin of the Urhobo Clans
Introduction
Traditions of Origins/Migration
Royal Titles and Royal Salutations
Endnotes
Chapter Three: Cultural Diversity Among the Urhobos
Introduction
Marriage
Language
Pattern of dressing
Men’s Dressing
Young girls
Women
Other Cultural Practices
Problems of Cultural Diversity among the Urhobos
Endnotes
Chapter Four: Conclusion
Bibliography
CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Introduction    
The Urhobo are people of southern Nigeria near thenorth western Niger Delta. Urhobo is the major ethic group in Delta state. The term Urhobo is used to describe all the land marks and indigenes of the settlement covering delta central and part of south senatorial district (Warri main town)1. The Urhobos speaks the Urhobo language. The Urhobos comprise of twenty two (22) kingdoms or clan and now twenty  three(23)  although some writerssay they are twenty five (25).The various kingdoms that makes up the Urhobo have always lived  together as one people but some problems are likely to arise from the differences in the cultures of these various kingdom, their stories of migration, religion, marriage, dressing, linguistics dialects.
    The Urhobos live in a territory bounded bylatitudes 60 and50, 150 North and longitudes50, 400 and60, 250East in the Delta state of nigeria2. Their neighbors are the Bini(s)to thenorth,Ijaw to the south,the Itsekiri to the West,  the  Ukwani’s  to  the North East, and the Isoko  to the  South East. It covers a total area of about 2,000 square miles. The Urhobo nations is the largest and most populated ethnic group in Delta state and the fifth (5th) largest nation in Nigeria.3
    Peter P. Ekeh, founder ofUrhobo historical society wrote in his book, Studies in Urhobo Culture, that “Urhobo is physically embedded in the Atlantic forest belt that stretches from Senegal in West Africa to Angola in central Africa. Historically, the region was the most prestine in all of Africa. Historically the Portuguese  Burst into its territories. In the late 15th century, its forest people cultivated their own form of civilization untouched by outside influences. A bulk of the Urhobo people reside in the southwestern states of Delta and Bayelsa state in Nigeria, also referred to as the Niger Delta. Many live in small and major cities in regions and local government areas in Ughelli, Warri, Ethiope Okpe and Sapele. Some major cities and towns include, Okparabe, Arhavwarien, Warri, Sapele,Abraka, Ughelli, Effrun, Aladja, Ovwian, Orerokpe, Amukpe, Okpara-inland, Egini, Kokori, Kiagbodo, Isiokoro, Jesse, Ogharaefe, Effrun - otor, Ewu, Jeremi, Emadadja, Okwagbe, Ovu, Orogun Owawha, Otogor, Edjekota-ogor, Ofone, Otor-udu, Ekpan, Jeddo, Uwheru, Orhuwhorun e.t.c.Local government areas where Urhobo traditional  homes are located in Delta state are; Ethiope East and west,Okpe, Sapele, Udu, Ughelli North ad Ughelli South, Uvwie and Warri South.
    The Urhobo have four (4) main traditions of origin. The Autochthony, Tradition of migration from an original Edo territory. Tradition of origin from ife and the tradition of origin that link the Urhobos with the Sudan and Egypt4. The Tradition of migration from Benin is the most accepted tradition of origin among the Urhobos. The Tradition says that the Urhobos migrated from an Edo territory around where  the  ancient  towns  of  Udo  and  Benin are  currently located. The geographical characteristics and natural resources played an important role in the migration history of the Urhobos. At the end of the Ogiso  dynasty, many Urhobos and other Edo groups left Udo in different directions, Each at its own pace in search of more peaceful and economical territories.The Urhobos left under separate leaders in different directions and at different developmental stages, during different periods. When some of the emigrants left Benin, they found in their destinations in Urhobo territory some Edo speaking settlers. The Urhobo claim theycame from Benin but they were not bini people who turned to be Urhobo on reaching their territories, instead, they assert that they were already Urhobo before they left Benin.
There are various dialect among the Urhobo groups. The various dialects found among the Urhobo like the okpe, uvwie and orogun exclusive other languages, (okpe, uvwie and orogun speakUrhobo) are examples of internal identities within the Urhobo socio-cultural unit5.The Urhobo group settled in their various territories at different time ranging widely between 200 years and 2,000years ago. No one Urhobo unit conquered the other to impose a centralized government, Instead each group settled unto itself. It is perhaps partly as a result of the separatist settlement and the wide differences in the times and routes of migrations that the okpe, uvwie and orogun developed and retained their language distinctions while others had quite prominent dialects of the Urhobo language6. Among the twenty five (25) kingdom/clans of Urhobo are,
S/N    Name of Clan
1    Abraka Clan    
2    Agbarha-Otor Clan
3    Agbarha-Warri Clan
4    Agbarho  Clan
5    Agbon Clan
6    Arhavwarien Clan.
7    Eghwu Clan
8    Orogun Clan
9    Okpe Clan
    Sources;D.E. Egere, The Urhobo People and the Dynasty7
Okpe kingdom is the largest of all Urhobo politics. It is the largest kingdom of the Urhobo Nation. The river Ethiope separates okpe territory from that of Oghara and Idjerhe. Okpe land of Urhobo stretches from the river Ethiope on the Northside to Uvwie clan in the south and from Agbon and Agbarho clans westwards to the sea. The okpe people are the descendants of the four princely brothers namely, Orhue, Orhoro, Evbreke and Esezi whose ancestors migrated from benin about 1170 AD.8
There are various cultures that exist among the Urhobo clans, although these differences are not so much some of these differences can be seen in the migration story of the various clans, their dressings, their religious belief and festivals and even their dialects. Some of these differences have in recent time brought about some problems which shall be evaluated in this essay.
Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to examine problems of cultural diversity among the Urhobos. The specific objectives include:
To examine the traditions of origin of the Urhobos.
To examine the various cultural aspects of the Urhobos.
To examine the challenges facing Urhobo culture.
To highlight the integrative role of Urhobo culture .
Significance of the Study.
The importance of this study is to identify the Urhobo people  in general, the various clans / kingdom that make up the Urhobo Nation, the diverse culture that exist among the various Urhobo groups and the problems of these diverse culture in the Urhobo society today.
Scope of the Study.
The scope of this work covers the history and cultural diversity among the Urhobos in the pre-colonial times.
Methodology.
In writing this long essay, primary and secondary methods of gathering materials will be adopted. Primary sources for this essay will be oral interview while secondary source will be books that have analysed the history of the Urhobo people their various kingdom and diverse cultures. The okpe people in particular. Oral interview will be carried out with Traditional personalities like the Owhorode of Olomu Kingdom.
Literature  Review.
Five books by different writers will be reviewed relevant to this essay.
D.E Egere, UrhoboEarly history and the Dynasty9. This book has discussed extensively on the Urhobo people in general, the various clans and their story of origin. It discussed the Urhobo race, its ancient dynasties the ancient Urhobo kingdom and the history of her great Migration. It also discussed the impact of colonialism in Niger Delta and a call for unity, the Urhobo progressive union, a body that unites the Urhobo people. This book will be relevant to this research in regards to the history of the Urhobo people and the various story of. Origin  of  thevarious clans.
P.P Ekeh,Studies in Urhobo Culture10. This book has discussed the Urhobo people in general, her traditional and religious life,Urhobo Names and Naming practice, Urhobo language,Urhobo geography and cultural heritage among other issues. This work edited by peter P. Ekeh is very resourceful to this research work to understanding the Urhobo people and their culture in general.
Onigu Otite,The Urhobo People11 Third edition. This work has discussed largely on the geography of Urhobo land, history of the Urhobo, issues of the urhobo history, politics of the various clans and also the social and cultural life of the Urhobos. This bookis relevant to understand the cultural and social organization of the various Urhobo clans and also their history. Most especially the history of the okpe clan.
J.O Asagba,TheUntold Story of A Nigeria Royal Family, The Urhobo Ruling Clan of Okpe Kingdom12. The book presents the story of the Urhobo ruling clan/family of okpe kingdom and its political powers in Nigeria this book is relevantand useful in understanding the history of the okpe people. Although, this book has not talked on thediversity of the Okpe culture to other cultures.
C.E Osume, The Okpe People13. This book has discussed on the okpe people in general, their economy, social and political organization, tradition of okpe migration. In this book, the author has emphatically stated that okpe is not Urhobo and this can be consideredas a problem of cultural diversity among the Urhobos. This book will be relevant to understanding this assertion.
The books reviewed above would be relevant to this research project among other relevant sources.
Endnotes.
Egere,D.E.The UrhoboEarly History and the Dynasty, (Warri:Classical Books Publication, 2012), p.6.
Urhobo Historical Society, “The Urhobo People”,   https:/en,m,wikipedia.org/wiki/urhobo-people-
Egere, The UrhoboEarly History and the Dynasty, p.6.
Onigu Otite, The Urhobo People, Third Edition, (Ibadan: Oyo State Gold Press Limited, 2011), pp. 25-29.
Ibid., P. 29
Ibid., P. 38
Egere, UrhoboEarly History and the Dynasty, p.7.
Asagba, J. O. The Untold Story Of a Nigeria Royal Family, The Urhobo Ruling Clan of Okpe Kingdom, (Lincoln:/Universe,Inc, 2005).
Egere, The Urhobo Early History and the Dynasty.
 Ekeh, P.P.Studies in Urhobo Culture,(ed) Peter P. Ekeh (Published by Urhobo Historical Society; New York, U.S.A. 2005).
Onigu, The Urhobo People, Third Edition.


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Project Details

Department English
Project ID ENG0024
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 4 Chapters
No of Pages 70 Pages
Methodology Descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department English
    Project ID ENG0024
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 4 Chapters
    No of Pages 70 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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