SOCIO-CULTURAL PERCEPTION OF MARITAL RAPE IN NIGERIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON INDIGENOUS SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE. A STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:94
  • Methodology:Chi Square
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Sociology)
SOCIO-CULTURAL PERCEPTION OF MARITAL RAPE IN NIGERIA AND ITS IMPLICATION ON INDIGENOUS SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE. A STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, BENIN CITY
ABSTRACT

Over the years, the issues of Marital Rape like every other social issue bothering on human sexuality and abnormal behavior have attracted a lot of writings by researchers and social commentators born out of the complexities of intellectual cobwebs surrounding the subject matter. These complexities are not unconnected to the vagaries of subjective meanings and misconceptions tied to the apron string of socio-cultural perceptions encompassing norms, values and belief which shape the moral, ideological and philosophical inclinations in this context. To this end, this research sought to determine the socio-cultural perception of marital rape in Nigeria using Egor Local Government Area of Benin City as a case study paying attention to the interplay between certain social indicators that can shape these perceptions especially the recognition on cultural relativity in the context of the “Western-African Culture Divide”. In achieving this, detailed theoretical explanations where implored. Information where retrieved from the field using the questionnaire as the primary instrument of data collection. Results where analyzed and interpreted using Chi-Square and Simple Percentage Table. Findings, conclusions and implication for Social Work Practice in Nigeria where offered.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY-    -    -    -    
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM-    -    -    -    
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS-    -    -    -    -
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY-    -    -    -    -    
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY-    -    -    -
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS-    -    -    -    -
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW    
2.1 REVIEW OF THEORITICAL LITERATURE-    -    -
2.2 REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL LITERATURE-    -    
2.3 REVIEW OF RELEVANT THEORIES-    -    -
2.4 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK-    -    -    -    -
2.5 FORMATION OF HYPOTHESIS-    -    -    
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 STUDY DESIGN-    -    -    -    -    -    
3.2 SCOPE AND AREA OF STUDY-    -    -    -
3.3 POPULATION OF STUDY-    -    -    -    
3.4 SAMPLE SIZE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE-    -    
3.5 INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION-    -    -
3.6 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION-    -    -    -    -
3.7 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS-    -    -    
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
4.1 SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS
OF RESPONDENTS-    -    -    -    -    -    -    
4.2 MAJOR RESEARCH ISSUES-    -    -    -    -
4.3 CROSS TABULATION OF RESEARCH VARIABLES-    
4.4 TEST OF HYPOTHESIS-    -    -    -    -
4.5 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS-    -    -    -    -
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS-    -    -    -
5.2 CONCLUSION-    -    -    -    -    -    
5.3 IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL WORK PRACTICE
IN NIGERIA    -    -    -    -    -    -    -    
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS-    -    -    -    -
REFERENCES    -    -    -    -    -    -
APPENDIX    -    -    -    -    -    -
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Violence against women is a major cause of death and incapacity. (World Development Report, 1993)Violence against women has also been defined in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, as a prevalent harm to the basic rights, freedoms, health and welfare of women.Unfortunately however, the issue of marital rape which is a form of sexual violence against women has often been ignored and in fact left unattended to by social workers and researchers. This may be attributed to the complexities of social and cultural issues and perceptions underlying the subject matter.
The discussion on culturally relevant social work has gathered momentum in recent years and its merits and demerits have been debated vehemently by various scholars in the profession. Indigenization therefore, has become a popular term in social work literatures just as social workers have continuously advocated for a more indigenous approach to the practice of the profession. This is because, the western knowledge base of social work does not suit the complexities, intricacies, interactions and relationships in which values, norms and social beliefs of the Nigerian people are embedded.
The above view was supported by Anucha (2008), when she asserted that the American and British models of professional social work that has been exported to Africa has been critiqued as unable to address the unique issues and cultural characteristics of the majority of Africans.
    According to kwaku (1993), the need for indigenization is based upon the realization that social work in Africa has failed to respond appropriately to the major social problems confronting the region. According to him, the social work profession is heavily influenced by western theories and no meaningful attempt has been made to ensure that the profession fits into the social, economic, and practical environment in which it operates.
    It is against this backdrop that indigenization is seen as modalities adopted in making western social work knowledge base and practice to be culturally relevant to the contemporary African and Nigerian society. Gray et al (2008) opined that the core elements of indigenization should include integration, adjustment, creative synthesis, adaptation, localization, realignment, appropriateness and authentication among others. Indigenization therefore implies adapting imported ideas to fit local needs. (Hall, 1990).
    In discussing the models of indigenization, Chang (2005) identifies three models to include transnational model, the theoretical-reasoning model and the grounded model. The trans-national model attacks the blind application of western concepts to non-western societies and emphasizes native studies from an epic point of view by native scholars. The theoretical-reasoning model focuses on a socio-cultural critique and attacks the dominance of empiricism. The grounded model however stresses the importance of grounded research with careful fieldwork and demands indigenous scholars to develop their own problems and research agendas relevant to indigenous societies.
    The above mentioned models of indigenization are intended through this research work to demystify the core issue of marital rape within the context of the Nigerian society. The trans-national model of indigenization which attacks the blind application of western concepts to non-western societies supposes that the conceptualization of marital rape may not be in conformity with the principle of universalism. The theoretical-reasoning model which gives impetus to socio-cultural critiques advocates for a cultural realization of the concept of marital rape with a view to appreciating its indigenous knowledge and understanding. This research work is also intended to satisfy the grounded model through an indigenous focused research on the subject matter.
According to Monsiola and Olusegun as cited in Sexual Violence Research Initiative (2007), marital rape refers to any unwanted and undesired sexual act by a spouse which is committed without consent or against the persons will. According to them, marital rape can serve multiple functions including its use as a socially sanctioned strategy to punish women, a tactic to assert masculinity and maintain a patriarchal social order as well as serving as a method to ‘resolve’ domestic conflicts, and a male behavior to take sexual pleasure.
There is therefore the need not only to assess the public perception of marital rape in the Nigerian context but also to evaluate certain socio-cultural factors like religion, unbalanced gender (male superiority), norms, early marriage and power relations that serves as the moral lens used in the contextualization and evaluation of human behavior as determined by values with which the indigenous society underscores its own problematiques.
This research work is therefore intended to unravel the nitty-gritty of socio-cultural, legal, and political issues surrounding marital rape in the Nigerian context. This will aid the social worker in understanding the basic indigenous knowledge and natural helping networks to be utilized in practicing with diverse social and marginalized groups in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM    
    During the past two decades, the physical and sexual abuse of women has become widely recognized.Marital rape is a common form of sexual violence. It accounts for approximately 25% of all rape cases and is experienced by 10 - 14% of married women. (Rabbi, 2006).Sexism is at the heart of marital rape, just as it is at the heart of most forms of sexual violence. This is because of the widespread idea that a husband has a right to sex and often, the marriage vows are seen as giving contractual consent to sex.
    Traditionally, rape has been defined legally as forced intercourse without the consent of the woman other than the wife. (Kersti, 1996). According to an early British Jurist, “the husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract, the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband, which she cannot retract.” (Matthew Hale, 1680).
    The definition of marital rape can be stated simply as forced sex without the consent of the woman in cases where the perpetrator and victims are legally married. This definition appears clear and succinct, yet, there are ambiguities embedded within it. First, the phenomenon of “marital” rape is not limited to legally married couples. Cohabiting couples have relationships quite comparable to husbands and wives. (Yllo and Straus, 1983).
    The issue of force and consent must be addressed in all rape cases. However, the nature of the spousal relationship makes these issues more complex.The kind of social cohesion regarding marital sex is institutionalized in the Nigerian culture and internalized in individuals. While such cohesion can be degrading and detrimental, especially when accompanied by other forms of male entitlement and control, it does not fall within a useful definition of rape.
    Firstly, marital rape is not recognized in the Nigerian culture.(Uwaoma, Njoku and Madukwe, 2011). The Nigerian culture which is a conglomeration of our social beliefs, norms, values, attitudes, religion and customs all do not believe that a married woman can be raped by her lawful and legally wedded husband. While it can be argued that this assumption is subjective and not objective, it is widely believed that a people’s culture is part of their human existence.
    Also, the concept of marital rape relegates the institution of marriage in the African context in that it puts to question the supremacy of the husband over the wife. It is also a fact that marital rape negates the initial consent to marriage which in itself includes but not limited to the consent to sex.Furthermore, all crimes are relative. The relativity of all reported crimes sets in motion a particular context to each crime. It becomes questionable therefore, to consider rape within the marriage context. Perhaps, more appropriate contextualization could imply “forced sex in marriage” in place of “marital rape”.
    In addition, religion is a fundamental aspect of the people’s culture. Both the Christian religion and the Islamic religion have doctrines and teachings embedded in its holy scriptures that negates the possibility of marital rape. According to the Biblical standpoint, 1 Corinthians 7:5, (New International  Standard Version) “the wife’s body does not belong to her alone but  also to her husband; in the same way, the husband’s body does not belong to him alone but also to his wife. Do not deprive each other, except by mutual consent, and for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer. Then come together again so that Satan does not tempt you because of lack of self control”. This suggests that both couples should always meet one another’s sexual desires. These religious injunctions have played an unconscious socialization role among Nigerians who therefore do not believe in marital rape.
    Furthermore, it is worthy to note that religious injunctions stem from such laws as the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church. The evolutionary nature of the Nigerian legal system has proven that, both the criminal code and the penal code are traceable to the religious teachings of the church which has been greatly influenced by the canon law. This explains why neither the criminal code nor the penal code does not recognize the occurrence of marital rape neither does it make provisions for punishment of likely offenders.
    Finally, the lack of reporting system in Nigeria has made it difficult if not totally impossible to keep necessary records and statistics on cases of rape, and marital rape. This explains why neither the Federal Ministry of Women Affairs nor the National Bureau of Statistics has a reliable statistics on marital rape cases in
Nigeria.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS  
 What are the socio-cultural perceptions of the Nigerian people on marital rape?
 To what extent does the concept of marital rape negate the initial consent to marriage which already implies consent to matrimonial sex?
 Given the relativity and contextualization of all crimes, would it be indigenously and culturally appropriate to use the word “rape” in a “marital” context?
 What impact do religious beliefs and other socio-cultural determinants have on the prevalence of marital rape in Nigeria?
 What is the influence of the law of the land on the occurrence of marital rape in Nigeria?
How does the lack of reporting system in Nigeria accentuate the prevalence of marital rape?
 What are the possible implications for indigenous social work practice in Nigeria?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research work is expected among other things:
To examine the cultural beliefs of the Nigerian people on the concept and issues of marital rape.
To unravel the nitty-gritty of socio-cultural, legal and political issues surrounding marital rape in the Nigerian context.
To assess the influence of values and social norms on the prevalence of marital rape in Nigeria.
To evaluate the impact of marital rape on the family institution in particular and the Nigerian society in general.
To determine what socio-cultural factors can exacerbate the prevalence of marital rape in Nigeria.
To adduce some feasible theoretical explanations associated with marital rape.
To demonstrate proper conceptual clarifications on marital rape in the light of the prevailing disparity between the western world and the Nigerian society.
To challenge respondents to articulate and examine their values towards marital rape.
And to consolidate on existing research on the subject matter and express the need for further research by social workers and other line-professionals.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It has been established by various literatures and opinion papers that marital rape in most of the sub-Saharan African countries especially Nigeria is legally and culturally accepted which invariably makes it the least researched form of gender based violence. (Dilek, 2011; Omoniyi, 2011; Chika, 2011; Salaam, 2003).
In other for social workers to intervene appropriately through policy formulation, it is imperative to explore and clarify the socio-cultural perceptions of Nigerians on marital rape. This research work is important in that it aims at creating a beginning understanding of cultural knowledge and perceptions so as to equip the social worker with a firsthand indigenous knowledge in working with diverse populations especially with those affected by marital rape.
DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS
 RAPE
Rape refers to a carnal knowledge of a woman forcibly and against her will. This implies an unwanted sexual intercourse that involves the use of force and the lack of consent.
MARRIAGE
Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children. It is an institution that sanctions the relationship of a man and a woman and binds them in a system of mutual obligations as a husband and wife which provides them with rights essential to the functioning of family life.
MARITAL RAPE
Marital rape is a non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victims’ spouse. Also, marital rape can be defined as any unwanted intercourse or penetration (vaginal, anal or oral) obtained by force, threat of force or when the spouse is unable to consent.
INDIGENOUS SOCIAL WORK
Indigenous social work refers to modalities adopted in making social work knowledge Base and practice to be culturally relevant to the contemporary Nigerian society.

Share This

Project Details

Department Sociology
Project ID SOC0064
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 94 Pages
Methodology Chi Square
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

500
Leave a comment...

    Project Details

    Department Sociology
    Project ID SOC0064
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 94 Pages
    Methodology Chi Square
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

    Related Project Topics

    ABSTRACT Over the years, the issues of Marital Rape like every other social issue bothering on human sexuality and abnormal behavior have... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:SOC0064
    • Department:Sociology
    • Pages:94
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Chi Square
    • Reference:YES
    ABSTRACT This study was carried out to identify the effect of marital instability on the academic performance of studies; a case study of Ovia North... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:EDU0614
    • Department:Education
    • Pages:68
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:simple percentage
    • Reference:YES
    TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction - - - - - - 1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - 1.4 Research Question - - - - - 1.5 Significance of the Study - - - -... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:SOC0063
    • Department:Sociology
    • Pages:60
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Simple Percentage
    • Reference:YES
    SOCIO ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN IDEATO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF IMO STATE ABSTRACT Over the years, Ideato North Local Government Area of Imo state has been experiencing a slow rate of development in the area. Based on this therefore, this work was... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:SOC0014
    • Department:Sociology
    • Pages:146
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Chi- Square
    • Reference:YES
    STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TRAFFICKING AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF AKOKO SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE) ABSTRACT The study is an investigation into student’s perception of women trafficking as a social problem in Nigeria, a case study of Akoko South West... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:EDU0453
    • Department:Education
    • Pages:36
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:TAWR Analysis
    • Reference:YES
    STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF WOMEN TRAFFICKING AS A SOCIAL PROBLEM IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF AKOKO SOUTH WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE) ABSTRACT The study is an investigation into student’s perception of women trafficking as a social problem in Nigeria, a case study of Akoko South West... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:SOC0003
    • Department:Sociology
    • Pages:36
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Descriptive method
    • Reference:YES
    ABSTRACT This study examines the perception of passengers of intra-city transport service in Benin City using Comrade Bus as case study. The study seeks to determine the perception of passengers on intra-city transport services... Continue Reading
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this survey research is to explore the leadership patterns of public primary school headmaster in Edo State as perceived by... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:EDU0441
    • Department:Education
    • Pages:70
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Descriptive method
    • Reference:YES
    LEADERSHIP PATTERNS AND THEIR IMPLICATION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PRIMARY SCHOOL: CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ABSTRACT The purpose of this survey research is to explore the leadership patterns of public primary school headmaster in Edo State as perceived by... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:EDU0480
    • Department:Education
    • Pages:69
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:Descriptive method
    • Reference:YES
    ABSTRACT The social-cultural factors affecting the use of family planning in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, the objective or aim of this study is to proffer solution to those... Continue Reading
    • Type:Project
    • ID:SOC0028
    • Department:Sociology
    • Pages:55
    • Chapters:5
    • Methodology:simple percentage
    • Reference:YES