THE IMPACT OF ADULT LITERACY ON THE SANITARY HABIT OF THE PEOPLE OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION BACK GROUND OF THE STUDY In most countries of the world, efforts are being made to attain satisfactory level of health. To Odunlami , good health is a fundamental human right, which is an important social aspect to attain. He further ascertained that health care services are directed towards preventive rather than curative services and that the most fundamental aspect of preventive health care are concerned with according environmental sanitation. Like in many other countries, the Bini ethnic groups in Egor Local Government Area of Edo state have been known to live in a clean environment even before the coming of the Europeans. The act of cleaning surroundings in Bini kingdom in those days was through individual household efforts. This can be traced back to the legend about a man called Arhuan [giant] whom history claimed used to uproot a whole palm tree to sweep his surroundings. But then, Egor people live in a small settlement and each settlement has its own sanitary culture. In terms of personal hygiene, the people eat clean food and appear neat. They put on clean wool materials at that time. But for some lazy ones who could not properly maintain their wool materials and leave them dirty attract lice and spread diseases. One common disease that was found among the people in the olden days was yaws. Which was common with children, and was destroying them, especially in areas were water supply is very scarce. In areas of environmental cleanliness, the method of cleaning surroundings among the Egor people was namely through communal efforts or self -help method. They have what is called "Iroghae" and ''ighali'' system in their operation, meaning 'youth' and 'young adults' respectively. These groups in their organizational structure are functional especially in manual works. These able bodied youths and men are made to clean public places like Edaiken traditional ground, market square, odionwere's palace, Town halls, Gutters, construct roads, local bridges and so on. Through could be called out within 1-3 months intervals as the Information is merely town criers. The sound of the town criers summons people together whenever there is a group work to be done in the community. Every landlord as the case may be is mandated to clean his compound, especially when sanitary inspectors are coming. Defaulters to any instructions are made to pay certain fines according to the bye-laws. The kind of toilet system used at that time was mostly pit toilet and dunghills. These were kept far away from the main house about 100-250m distance apart. The adult go to the pit toilet why the children use the dunghill the sweeping and maintenance of individual compound is done by the women who are the home keeper. With the coming of the colonial masters things started to take a new shape, the education by the colonial masters brought great change and innovations as there were series of lectures, work shop and film show on how to improve the personal cleanliness and clean environment. They were taught so many things example; effect of pathogenic organism like flies, mosquitoes and how to eliminate them .There is also enlightenment campaign on inoculation and vaccination against deadly diseases like chicken pox, measles and also on practice bordering on child rearing or child care .The importance of food hygiene was stressed. They introduced modern market stores, inspection of sales of food .Market masters were assigned to take charge of the market under the council; they were also made prosecute offenders. To this end, there were established rules and regulation on food sales in the market example: any cooking food for sale must be free from diseases that could be transferred to their foods. Beside, food must be properly covered during sale. It was observed that the introduction of inoculation and vaccination stooped some deadly diseases like yaws; measles and infant mortality were reduced .People became conscious of how to avoid things that could cause germs and harmful effect to their children and themselves after being given the necessary hygiene and environmental sanitation. Lectures, through the use of posters, pamphlets, jingle on hygiene and environmental sanitation. There was free medical care, especially those that concern free antiseptic material; example bathing soap, T.C.P, iodine that could be used for first aid services. During the period, the people were made to dispose refuse according to the order of sanitary inspectors. There were refuse Lorries moving around the city to collect rubbish and solid waste. The sanitary inspector also goes to villages to inspect round the communities and their surroundings, schools markets and hospitals were not left out. There good sanitary practices in schools, school children appear very neat and orderly knowing full well that they will be inspected at the assembly ground. Children were made to show their teeth, nails, uniforms at the assembly ground. The pupils with dirty uniforms and cloths were sent home for corrections. All these discipline and education accustomed them to appear neat and live in a clean environment after their graduation. After independence, things were still good. However, a few years, the whole was traditionally structured and built by the colonial masters started falling apart which. The sanitation inspectors who were very active became less active and began to slack in their operations .Later on, these sanitation inspectors were replaced by health system superintendents. They could not but became married to their air condition office. They were not known to go around but only give instructions that may never be carried out. The sanitation system had become a mess to the extent that every street in Egor Local Government Area has become a refuse dump. Generally, in recent times, Nigeria has been experiencing deteriorating sanitary habits, which can be noticed throughout the nook and cranny of the country. In fact, this manifested in terms of poor hygiene, poor disposal of refuse and neglect of public places like the market, sales of adulterated foods and commodities. This has led to the outbreak of deadly diseases and infections like cholera, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, guinea worm, sleeping sickness in the lives of Nigerians. The sanitation has been made as a result of unkempt and fitly environment .In fact, people no longer care about rules of hygiene, even what they eat and drink, wear, and were they sleep is no more of great concern to them. With this trend of this, successive government in Nigeria tried to impact good sanitary habit in citizen. One typical example of such is the setting up of national environmental sanitation day which was observed every last Saturday nationwide. In addition, some states of federation have set asides a day for sanitation exercise in furtherance of federal government sanitation exercise in the area of promoting good hygiene and health care. To demonstrate the seriousness of government on the policy, anybody caught when the exercise is on is made to pay a fine of between 500 -1000 Naira. Furthermore, government also decided to educate adult as a means of promoting good health care practices. To this end, adult literacy programmes were instituted, Literacy brings light in to one’s life. The issue of environmental sanitation was not only looked out by government, the non-organization also played an important role. This was done through the introduction of the programme –MAESSAH (Mass action for environmental sustainability sanitation and hygiene''. MAESSAH is a flag -ship programme of the environmental ethnic and safety crops specifically designed to help secure clean and safe environment for posterity. It is a system deliberately constructed to create millions of very profitable, non -pensionable jobs for Nigeria's teaming population of youths in the strategic sector of environmental security. The purpose of MAESSAH is to offer environmental education and enlightenment ''Theoretically and practically to a critical number of youths in each war of the country, who will be sufficiently trained, motivated and mobilized to engage the rest of the communities in responses to present and future local and global environmental challenges, hazards and disasters. Another purpose is to maintain in each local government area and their area councils responsive squad of environmental foot-soldiers that will assist communities, government and private agencies in the monitoring, reporting, promoting and cultivation of sound sanitation and hygiene practices and regulations, as well as provide quick relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction and re-integration interventions to victims of environmental hazards/disasters in the wards. According to World Bank 2010, the responsibility for sanitation is not always clear, but urban sanitation is a responsibility of state government .The progress towards bringing about a cleaner environment has relied on a philosophy of pollution control .This has involved sometimes costly measures and controversial political decisions .As a result ,developing countries, poor communities and financially constrained enterprises have often argued that the environment is an expensive luxury that diverts resources from more productive uses This perspective is given way to new paradigm stating that neglecting the environment can impose high economic and even financial costs while many environmental benefits can in fact achieved at low cost. The role of mass media in environmental sanitation is not over emphasized. According to Agbo (2003), mass media have contributed a lot in the development of our society. Through the media involve the government and NGO's in the campaign against indiscriminate dumping of refuse in the environment ,illegal erection of buildings in approved sites and other activities of man in the environment .Literacy programs was introduced in other to promote good sanitary habit in the community. Literacy is the ability to communicate, read, write and compute effectively to an appreciably level with any language that is acceptable to an appreciably level. Literacy reduces the rate of crime; it could produce the individual with information that can lead to the development of one self. Adult literacy is a type of education given to people to equip them with the skills and knowledge that will enable them participate freely in their own affair both in the domestic and social life .Adult literacy provide people with information that can lead to developing appropriate habits on how to improve on personal cleanliness and clean environment .It could help to remove the people from the of ignorance, danger diseases and poverty. Adult literacy can also help society develop socially, shackles economically, and politically. It also enlightens the people on how to protect their food against germs and deadly diseases in their environment. Adult literacy enables the people to gain the benefit of empowerment over the maintenance of their communities or environment with acquisition of the sanitary habits of the people will promote social cohesion, unity and peace in the community. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The sanitary habit of people in Egor local Government area of Edo state has been deteriorating over the last few years. The attitude and behavior of the people towards sanitation in and out their homes have been waged against filthiness through operation clean your environment. The campaign has been pursed and stressed using radio, posters, television over and over again. All this information and caution have been fruitless because there have been fruitless sanitary habits, you can see people pouring out refuse in their roads, gutters, especially when heavy rain falls. After the rain, one can find debris, pure water sachet, paper of ice cream, litters of empty cans, mango seeds, corn husk and peels everywhere especially during mango and corn seasons. What is more dis hearting among other things is that people are becoming Luke warm and indifferent to their health and hygiene. The market places that suppose to be a decent atmosphere for buying and selling have become refuse dump for people and the inhabitants. The seller and the buyer battle with swamp of flies before selling and buying-meat food items are exposed to this flies which is detrimental to our health. The activities of the environmental task force concerning environmental sanitation in Egor local government area of Edo state have become loose and less effective in recent times. They constitute nuisance, smell, and pollute the environment, the local government has no designated area where the refuse can be dumped, hence and those problems keep on magnifying every day. With the increasing population and urbanization more awareness have been created by the governmental (task force on environmental sanitation) for the purpose of enlightening the people on rules and regulation regarding improved personal hygiene and the environment we leave in. In the light of that, one would have expected there would be improvement in our sanitary habit but the reverse appears to be the case. Hence, there is need therefore to investigate the impact of adult literacy on sanitary habit on the people on Egor local government area. RESEARCH QUESTION In view of the issues raised and the statement of the problem, the following research questions have been raised to guild this study; Dose adult literacy program has any significant impact on the life of the people? Dose the adult literacy program in the local government area contribute or constitute to environmental pollution In which area has adult literacy programme impacted on the sanitary habit of the people? Dose adult sanitary programe has any significant influence on the attitude of people towards environmental sanitation. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of Adult literacy programs on the sanitary habits of people in Egor Local Government Area of Edo state .The study will seek to achieve the following specific purposes. 1. To find out the extent to which such programs has impacted on the sanitary habits of the people. 2. To determine if Adult literacy and sanitary habit of the people affect the environment in Egor local Government Area. 3. To determine if Adult literacy has any significant impact on the people. 4. To ascertain if Adult literacy program has any influence on the attitude of the people towards environmental sanitation. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research work will provide an insight in to the problems of poor sanitation in Egor local Government Area .The research work will be useful to the Government, stakeholders and the general public in many ways. To the government, the research work will help to assess the government effort made so far and their loopholes and at the end, it will empower the government to put on more seriousness in the areas where they are lacking. It will also help the government to know where the people in Egor Local Government Area need their attention most. The government will know the areas to provide refuse bin. To the stake-holders, the research work will help them to know how and where to channel their chemicals so that it will not cause health hazard to the people of Egor local government area. The research work will make them to be more conscious of the people's health. It will make the stake-holders not to cause pollution to the people. To the general public, the research work will promote good sanitation and elimination of the problem of ignorance among the people. This study will also reveal the success and failures of adult literacy programs both on radio, television and news papers etc, as regards educating the people on environmental sanitations. The study will serve as a basic tool for further research study and will provide vital information that will be useful for further study. SCOPE/DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY Bearing in mind the complexity of the issue, which is ‘‘The impact of adult literacy on the sanitary habits of Egor people’’ This study focuses only on environmental sanitation and personal hygiene among other sanitary habits of Egor people. The areas that are of concern also include attitude of the people towards disposal of refuse, of attitude towards adult literacy and Egor the impact literacy on the sanitary habits within Local Government Area. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY There was difficulty of getting sufficient materials for the reference purposes. There was little or no time to carry out extensive investigation on the study. Financial constraints was another aspect that hinders the researcher's efforts, cost of transportation to various areas of visit were quite exorbitant because of the inflation in the economy. DEFINITION OF TERMS ADULT LITERACY: The types of education given to people to equip them with the skills and knowledge that will enable them participate freely in their own affairs both in the domestic and social life. LITERACY: Is the ability to communicate, read, write and compute effectively to an appreciable level of any language that is acceptable. NUISANCE: Condition which are offensive or likely to be dangerous to health such as bad smell, and fly breeding. ENVIRONMENT: Is a man surroundings which include all the circumstances, influences and events that he encounters in his life time. REFUSE: Is used to include all discarded solid water materials example : garbage ,paper, metals ,papers of ice cream, pure water sachet, mango seed and corn husk. SANITARY HABITS: Is the attitude of the people towards personal cleanliness and clean environment.
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TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction - - - - - - 1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - 1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - 1.4 Research Question - - - - - 1.5 Significance of the Study - - - -... Continue Reading