AN ANALYSIS OF AMBROSE ALLI’S POLICY ON EDUCATION IN BENDEL STATE, 1979-1983

  • Chapters:5
  • Pages:138
  • Methodology:Descriptive
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(International and Diplomatic Studies)
AN ANALYSIS OF AMBROSE ALLI’S POLICY ON EDUCATION IN BENDEL STATE, 1979-1983
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE
The development of education in Bendel State 1979-1983.
CHAPTER TWO
The UPN Manifesto and Education
CHAPTER THREE
Ambrose Alli and the Development of Primary and Secondary  Schools.
CHAPTER FOUR
Ambrose Alli and the Development of Tertiary Education
CHAPTER FIVE
The impact of Ambrose Alli Policy o n Educational Development in Bendel State.
CHAPTER ONE
THE DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCAITON IN BENDEL STATE, 1075-2979
THE CREATION OF BENDEL STATE
Mid-Western Region, was created in June 1963 from the Benin and Delta province of the Western Region, the status on 27 May 1967, and the region was renamed Bendel state on 17th March, 1976.  Before that time, the area was part of the then Western Region of Nigeria. 1
It retained the name till February 1976, when at the creation of additional states in the country, the area was renamed Bendel state. According to Kalu Ezera,
“when the country was first divided (into 12 states, the state retained its name and size).2
Geographically, Bendel state comprises Edo and Delta state then called Benin province and Delta province. Benin province comprises: Akoko Edo division, Afemai Division, Benin Division, Ishan Division, while Delta Province comprises: Aboh Division, Ijaw Division, Isoko Division, Urhobo Division and Warri Division. In 1971, the regions population was estimated 3.5 million people scattered about in Nineteenth local government area with a land mass of 36,293 kilometer, in 1991 two states were created from Bendel state they are: Edo state and Delta state. 3
In the book: Leadership by example, Emiator M. Osagie explains that the creation of the state could be traced back to the early days of British Colonial Administration of the country. The communities of the Bendel State, having close cultural and political ties that bond the various people in the community, there evolved a kind of group consciousness among the people. As this conscious group crystalised into group identify, political expressions for a separate region were put forward by representative from Bendel and Warri province at the regional conference held at Ibadan in 1950 to discuss the working of the Richard Constitution of 1946. 4
From this point onward, determined effort were made by the people of the area of secure for themselves a separate state of their own. It is necessary to point out that the agitation for a separate state was not peculiar to the people of this area, because the majority in each region drew most   of its support in the legislations of its member from the same linguistics group. There was widespread fear among minority groups in the region that self government would facilitate their political and economic subjugation to the interest of the majorities. These fears led to the setting up of the Willinck  commission in 1957 (otherwise known as the minority commission), part of whose terms of reference was to examine the fear of minority in any part of Nigeria and propose means to alley them.5
The commission found as a matter of fact the fear expressed by the minorities were genuine but refused to accept that the fear could be removed by splitting the existing three regions into smaller regions. Instead, the commission included among its recommendation for protecting minorities provision in the constitution, a comprehensive list of fundamental human rights. In  addition, the commission recommended the establishment of minority and special area to promote social and economic progress in the areas.6
An offshoot of this recommendation was the establishment of the Niger Delta Development Board, with headquarter in Port-Harcourt to cater for the social and economic development of the minority communities in the Niger Delta region.
The idea of a separate state for the Mid-West Minority did not find favour with the Western Regional Government, rather, it went ahead after the 1957 constitution conference to announce the creation of a minority of Midwest Affairs, and the establishment of a Midwest Advisory Council with a MidWestern, Chief Anthony Ehahoro as the first Minister of Midwest Affair.7
In a prepared statement, the premier of Western Nigeria, Chief S.I Akintola announced in the House of Assembly on September 28, 1960 that his government had established a Mid –West Advisory Council. Like the later body, the functions of the Midwest Minority Council  would be allowed to exercise certain executive powers in regard to the Midwest.
The aim was to foster a more effective way possible under the old Advisory Council further recognition of the right of the people of the Minority area to play a greater part in the planning and execution of all government schemes for the development and welfare of the area and of the need for their collaboration in getting government decisions to be understood and accepted by the people.8
The federal constitution of 1960 otherwise known as the independence constitution included provision for the creation of new region from existing ones. Section 4(3) (a) and (b) provided that a resolution to create a new region must be passed by both Houses of parliament and supported by at least two-third of votes of all the members of each of the two Houses, and thereafter be approved by two Houses of a majority or each Houses of at least two region, including that of the region from which the new region is to be carved out.9
Advantage was taken of this provision when on March 22, 1962, the following resolution was moved by the Prime Minister, AlhajiAbubakarTafawaBalewa and later passed by the House of Representatives and subsequently approved by the senate.10 That this house approves a  proposal for an alternative to section 3 of the constitution of the federation of Nigeria, for the purpose of establishing a fourth region within the federation of Nigeria consisting territorially of Benin province in Western Nigeria  including Akoko Edo District in Afemai Division and Delta province in Western Nigeria including Warri Urban township area.10
The resolution having been passed as laid down under section 4(3) of the independence constitution, other requirements for the creation of a new region were specified in the independence constitution. Parliament enacted the Mid Western Region Act 1962 which in effect amended a section of the independence constitution by redefining the area of the Western Region out of which the new region was to be created.
For the act to come into force, the legislatures of Northern and Eastern Region had to signify their consent as required by section 4(5) of the constitution. The same section also provided for the holding of a referendum before the act could have effect. The referendum was eventually held on July 27, 1963. The result showed that 89% of the qualified voters, i.e 29% more than the statutory minimum voted in favour of the Mid-Western Region Act 1962 which was subsequently brought into force on August 9, 1963.10
The Mid Western Region legally came into existence with effect from that data, thus from the Western region, it became Midwest and subsequently Bendel State.
EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN BENDEL STATE 1975-1979
    The development of Education in Bendel State from 1975 began basically with a steady and substantial increase in primary school enrolment. This agenda continued until the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1976.11
    However, the increase in primary school enrolment in the Mid-Western Region (comprising Edo and Delta), was minimal. J.C.S Musaazi in his book, Planning and Development in Education said
“Enrolment rose from, 1,124,788 in 1960, to 1,128,127 in 1976. Source statistics gotten from JSC book planning and development in Education”.
    In January 1974, the then Head of State General Yakubu Gowon declared that Nigeria was to embark on a Nationwide programme of Universal Primary Education. In the third National Development Plan of 1975 – 1980, the Federal Government made provision for the sum of N300 million for the scheme and projected a pupil enrolment of 11.5 million by 1980. The Gowon’s government also allocated 200 Million Naira for the training of teachers for the programme. On the 6th of September 1976, the programme was launched. It provided for free universal primary education throughout the country and it was to become compulsory from 1979.12
    The universal primary education scheme was a major contribution to educational development in Bendel State and indeed of immense benefit to the country in terms of mobilizing its human resources, adjusting its educational imbalances and providing equal opportunities and access to education for Nigerian children.
    Statistics of primary school enrolment between 1975 - 1976 in Bendelstate was as follows = 151,048; 1976-1977=174,340, 1977-1978 = 180,211, 1978 – 1979 = 177,783.
    However, there is one other significant point to note after the UPE year (1976-7), enrolment started declining, one of the problems which the UPE scheme faced, was lack of sufficient trained and qualified teachers, this situation is shown in the statistics below in Bendel State.
    Between 1975-6 (pre-UPE) in Bendel State, the teaching  force was: Total number of teacher 1975 – 6 = 17,909
Number of grade II teachers (passed) 8,152
Number of grade II teachers (failed) 2,528
Number of grade III teachers (passed) 599
Total number of trained teachers (P & F) 11,279
Total number of untrained teachers = 6,630
Percentage of untrained teachers 37%
    In 1976 – 7 (the UPE year) the position of the teaching force was as follows:
    Total number of teacher 19,898
Increase over 1975 – 6         1,989
Percentage increase        11.9%
Total number of grade II teacher (passed) 8,585
Total number of grade II teacher (failed) 2,692
Total number of grade III teacher (passed) 483
Total number of trained teachers     11,766
Others trained                 8,138
Percentage of untrained teachers 40%.13
Source: Secondary source, statistics gotten from JSC Musaazi book: planning and Development in Education Africa perspective pp.7—92.
    The increase in the number of teachers seemed normal but there was still a significant percentage of untrained teachers. The increase in teachers does not seem to be disproportionately great. Many of the teaching staffs were still untrained.
    The problem of untrained teachers was a common factor in Bendel State. The 40% of untrained teachers suggests that not enough teaching education programme were mounted before the UPE scheme was launched. By implication , all kinds of unqualified people were employed as teachers to cope with an increasingly large school population  brought about by the introduction of UPE. An appraisal exercise of the programme carried out in 1977 showed increase in pupils enrolment but, with immense shortage of untrained teachers, classrooms, equipment and funds.14
    However, education at the secondary school level varied, the primary school leavers had many options from which to choose, he can proceed to a secondary grammar school, a secondary modern school, a comprehensive secondary school, a trade centre, a technical school or a teacher training college. The growth of secondary education was influenced by the expansion of primary education. However, the secondary school was faced with the problem of both quality and quantity of education.
    The problem faced by secondary school education in Bendel State ranges from great shortage of trained graduate teachers in schools, professional incompetence, great indiscipline and lack of dedication, poor funding of science laboratories, lack of school facilities and equipments of among other study materials.15
    However, despite the myriad of problems secondary schools in Bendel state received some expansion. In the various secondary schools, the secondary grammar school was the most popular, with its boarding facilities, it offered the best chanceof post-secondary educational advancement. As at 1975, there were 127 of such schools in Bendel state with 52,852 students enrolled. Secondary modern schools were particularly established in Mid-Western Region in the late 1950s, such schools had a programme lasting for only three (3) years. They offered courses in practical subjects such as metalwork, woodwork, agricultural science, domestic science, and needlework. Generally speaking these schools catered for those students who failed to gain admission to a secondary grammar school.16
    Teacher training college is one of the keys to educational development and advancement in every country. No country can afford to expand her educational frontiers facilities and its development plan without recourse to growth of teachers training institute. There are 10 teachers training schools in Bendel state (Mid Western Region), with 4109 student enrolment as at 1975.17
    In the area of higher education, the institute of technology was accorded the status of a full-fledged university by the National Universities Commission (N.U.C) on 1st July 1971, it was  later renamed the University of Benin, the Midwest Institute of technology offered courses on petrol chemical and industrial engineering, Auto-mobile engineering, Geographical and agricultural engineering, material engineering and medicine.18
    Another higher institute in Bendel state as at 1975 was the Auchi Polytechnic, founded in 1964, it started as a technical college which was a gift from the British government to the then Mid-Western Region. It offer courses only up to the ordinary level in limited areas of engineering and businesses, in 1973, the Bendel state government upgraded the technical college to a full fledged polytechnic with the mandate to trained skilled manpower up to Higher National Diploma level in broad range of engineering sciences, environmental studies, Business studies,  Art and Design.
    The college of Education, Abraka was another higher institution in Bendel State. It started as teachers training college during the colonial era, and became a full fledge college of education that awards Nigeria Certificate of Education (N.C.E) from 1971-1985. In 1981, it was affiliated to the University of Benin, Benin City and consequently offered degree programme from 1981 up to 1985 when it became the faculty of Education of the then Bendel state University with its main campus at Ekpoma.19
    The introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) in 1976, by the Gowon led administration set the stage for the development of education in Nigeria. The UPE led to the expansion of secondary schools to accommodate the mass graduation of pupils from primary schools. This also affected the increase in the teacher training colleges and the tertiary institutions.
 Endnotes
1.    KaluEzera, Constitutional Development in Nigeria, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1964), p.42.
2.    Ibid.,
3.    SegunAdesina, The Development of Modern Education in Nigeria (Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books, 1988), p.127.
4.    Emiantor M. Osagie, Leadership by Example (Abuja: National Leaders Foundation Publishers, 2010), p.1.
5.    Ibid.
6.    Ibid., 2
7.    Ibid.
8.    Ibid.
9.    Ibid., p.3
10.    Ibid., p.4

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Project Details

Department International and Diplomatic Studies
Project ID IDS0016
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 5 Chapters
No of Pages 138 Pages
Methodology Descriptive
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department International and Diplomatic Studies
    Project ID IDS0016
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 5 Chapters
    No of Pages 138 Pages
    Methodology Descriptive
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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