ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING PRACTICE AMONGST SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA

(Accounting)
ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING PRACTICE AMONGST SMALL SCALE ENTERPRISE IN NIGERIA
ABSTRACT

    This study examined environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprise in Nigeria. In order to actualize the objectives of the study, various literature and theoretical issues were discussed. The instrument used for the purpose of this research was gathered through primary and secondary source. The primary source is through questionnaire while the secondary source   extracts from journals by different authors and other publications. The mass of information generated from the questionnaire was summarized in form of table and analyzed using simple percentage. The researcher administered two hundred and fifty (250) questionnaires to respondents, out of which two hundred and twenty (220) were retrieved for the purpose of presenting and analyzing responses to issues raises in the questionnaires. The hypotheses stated in the study were tested using Z-test statistical tool. The findings from analysis revealed among other things that there is a positive relationship between environmental accounting practice and performance of small scale enterprise. The researcher recommends that tax incentive should be given to small scale enterprise (SME) with good environmental accounting practice.
TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE    
INTRODUCTION    
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY    
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM    
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY    
1.4    HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY    
1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY    
1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY    
1.7    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY    
CHAPTER TWO    
LITERATURE REVIEW    
2.1    INTRODUCTION    
2.2    REVIEW OF THEORETICAL LITERATURE    
2.3    REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES    
2.4    DISCUSSION    
CHAPTER THREE    
RESEARCH METHODOLGY    
3.1    INTRODUCTION    
3.2    RESEARCH DESIGN    
3.3    POPULATION    
3.4    SAMPLE SIZE    
3.5    SAMPLING TECHNIQUE    
3.6    THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT    
3.7    METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS    
CHAPTER FOUR    
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION    
4.1    INTRODUCTION    
4.2    DESCRIPTIVE STATITICS    
4.3    Test of Hypotheses    
4.3.1    Hypothesis One    
4.3.2    Hypothesis Two    
4.3.3    Hypothesis Three    
CHAPTER FIVE    
SUMMARY, OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS    
5.1    INTRODUCTION    
5.2    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS    
5.3    RECOMMENDATIONS    
5.3    CONCLUSION    
BIBLIOGRAPHY    
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
    According to Uwuigbe and Jimoh (2012), the state of the world’s environment and the impact of mankind on the ecology of the world have led to increased public concern and security of the operations and performance of organization. Organizations are now expected to be able to demonstrate that they are aware and addressing the impact of their operations on the environment and society in general. Despite some variations among countries in different regions, corporate environmental disclosures have increased globally in both size and complexity over the past two decades. For example, in the US a number of studies have revealed that environmental disclosures have increased over time. Similar situations appear in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. Although some developed countries have initiated mandatory disclosures in the reporting requirements, however, in most developing countries environmental disclosures still heavily rely on voluntary initiatives of the reporting entities.
    Asuquo (2012) views that, accounting has an instrumental role in disclosing environmental responsibility for different entities whether industrial or commercial services, and at all levels whether micro, meso and macro. Thus, accounting became concerned with achieving new goals such as measuring and evaluating potential or actual environmental impacts of projects and organizations. These new goals are of great importance as they enable many users to take different development decisions that are economically and environmentally sound. The awareness of the environmental and man’s ability to cause damage started from the fifties of the 19th century. This concern had been repeatedly expressed in series of international summits and consensus right from the sixties. The starting point that comprised an organized thought proves on a large scale the celebrated public action of the club of Rome entitled “Limits to Growth” that initiated a worldwide debate of economic growth at the expense of natural environment. The world conference held in Stockholm on global environment in 1972 (June), where the head of the states all over the world came together for the first time, was the pivotal event in the growth of the global environment movement. It was the first occasion on which the political, social and economic problems of the global environment were discussed at an inter-governmental forum with a view to take corrective action. It aimed to create a basis for comprehensive consideration with the United Nations of the problems of the human environment and to focus the attention of the governments and public opinion to various countries on the importance of the problem. It ultimately gave birth to special UN Agency titled “UN Environmental Programme (UNEP).
    Ngwakwe (2009) posit that, the increase in global environmental awareness and the campaign for sustainable economic development is redirecting the attention of firms towards environmental sensitivity. The quest for sustainability has caused an emergence of many global institutions enunciating varying norms that guide human interaction with the environment. These standards are influencing business corporations to understand that their strategic position in society has the power to influence behaviour and alter the state of physical, social and economic environment. At various national levels are government regulations, society pressure groups and green consumer pressure; these developments are reawakening corporate attention to strategic and competitive role of environmental responsibility to corporate survival. However, within the developing nations, the understanding is somewhat different mainly because of weak government regulations and lack of organized pressure groups and consumer awareness to influence corporate behaviour. Hence many corporations in developing countries such as Nigeria behaviour in a manner that suggests they can achieve   corporate goal even if environmental and social responsibility are trampled upon.
    In the light of this, the researcher intends to study environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprises in Nigeria.
1.2    STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
    There is a growing concern about the implications of environmental activities on the profitability of (small scale enterprise) companies in Nigeria. In view of the individual importance of the environment and the continued survival of business organizations, attention is focused on the interplay of sustainability of the environment and profitability of small scale enterprise. As Tapang, Bassey and Bessong (2012) opined “Our Environment….. is the basic force shaping our activities, our institutions. What we do and must do. A man ignorant of his environment is a cripple incapable of making wise decisions, for inevitably environmental forms play a critical role in all affairs”. Until recently, environmental issues were largely ignored by both corporations and individuals. Hazardous wastes and other such items were considered a necessary consequence of a growing economy. This view point has changed radically as more people now realize that the effects of waste products have serious and long term consequences for the ecosystem. Preserving a green environment, clean air, water and land are gaining greater importance than ensuring lower product prices for consumers and lower cost and consequently higher profits for business firms. Consumers are now more willing to pay for products that are environmentally friendly. This new mindset ultimately promotes sustainability of the environment. Sustainability here refers to the long term health of the global ecology; and sustainable environmental growth/benefit aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The major responsibility falls on the corporate organizations in our communities to ensure that the environment is treated as a integral part of the economic process and not as free goods.
    However, it is important to note that any action taken to protect the environment has an underlying cost. And, just like any other cost, it will have implications for the success or failure of the organization.
    Against this backdrop, the following research questions are raised:
1.    What is the relationship between environmental accounting practice and performance of Small Scale Enterprise?
2.    Does lack of knowledge and training of the Accounts Department staff on environmental accounting practice responsible for noncompliance with environment accounting practice by Small Scale Enterprise?
3.    Are there consequences to noncompliance with environmental accounting practice by Small Scale Enterprise?
1.3    OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
    The main objective of the study is to examine environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprises in Nigeria.
    The specific objectives are:
1.    To determine the relationship between environmental accounting practice and performance of small scale enterprise.
2.    To examine whether lack of knowledge and training of the accounting department staff on environmental accounting practice responsible for noncompliance with environment accounting practice by small scale enterprise.
3.    To ascertain if there is consequences to noncompliance with environmental accounting practice by small scale enterprise.
1.4    HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
    The hypotheses for this study are:
1.    There is a positive relationship between environmental accounting practice and performance of small scale enterprise.
2.    Lack of knowledge and training of the accounts department staff on environmental accounting practice is responsible for noncompliance with environment accounting practice by small scale enterprise.
3.    There are consequences to noncompliance with environmental accounting practice by small scale enterprise.
1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
    This research work is to empirically examine environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprise in Nigeria.
    The population of the study is the entire small scale enterprises in Nigeria, while the sample size will be restricted to some selected small scale enterprise operating in Nigeria.
    The length of period covered by the study was five (5) years (2007 – 2011).
    Geographically, the study will be conducted in Benin City, Edo State.
1.6    SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    This study will place emphasis on environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprises in Nigeria.
    It will enlighten the general public, accountant and management of business scale enterprise on environmental accounting practice.
    It would also add   to the available literature on the area of study while also providing a platform for other students and researchers who may want to further this study.
1.7    LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
    Due to the vastness of the topic, this study is limited to investigate environmental accounting practice amongst small scale enterprise in Nigeria.
    This research cannot be regarded as perfect and hitch free as some difficulties were encountered in the course of the study.
    Some of the limitations are:
1.    Smallness of sample size: it is interesting to emphasize that the findings of this empirical research are not to be generalized for all industry, since our limited to a number of small scale enterprise.
2.    The inability to obtain a completely random sample.
3.    Imprecise measurement of variables.
    However, strenuous effort has been made to mitigate the effects of these constraints in order to come out with an effective work.
 REFERENCES
Ngwakwe, C.C. (2009). Environmental responsibility and firm performance: evidence from Nigeria, international journal of human and social sciences 4(60: 384-391.
Asuquo, A.I. (2012). Environmental friendly policies and their financial effects on corporate performance of selected oil and gas companies in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2(1): 168-173.
Uwuigbe, U. & Jimoh, J. (2012). Corporate environmental disclosures in the Nigeria manufacturing industry. A study of selected firms, an international multidisciplinary journal, Ethiopia, 6(3): 71-83.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Using our service is LEGAL and IS NOT prohibited by any university/college policies

You are allowed to use the original model papers you will receive in the following ways:

1. As a source for additional understanding of the subject

2. As a source for ideas for your own research (if properly referenced)

3. For PROPER paraphrasing ( see your university definition of plagiarism and acceptable paraphrase)

4. Direct citing ( if referenced properly)

Thank you so much for your respect to the authors copyright.


For more project materials

Log on to www.grossarchive.com

Or call

+2348130686500

+2348093423853

500
Leave a comment...