MOTIVATION OF AS A MEANS OF INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
This research was carried out on a premise “Motivation as thee Means of Increasing Productivity in business organizations. The staff of 7up Bottling Company Plc (Oloku) was considered by the researcher. To really explore and harness the relationship between the variable of study: questionnaire was administered to the staff of 7up Bottling Company (Oloku) Benin City, Edo State.
Exploratory and survey research design were adopted by the research. The exploratory research design enable the collection of secondary data, the survey research design enable the collection of primary data for hypotheses testing. The data from both sources were collected and analyzed. Findings were quite revealing which shade explanatory light on the relationship that exit between the two variables.
Statistical instrument that was use by researcher was correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient measures the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. It is use to test the relationship between the variables that are both measured on internal or ratio scale and questionnaire were also administered to respondents.
Based on the findings of the study, recommendation that were made include: employers should give their employees high remuneration, but commensurate with their efforts, the employees should be given opportunity for promotion, employers should be apply an appropriate leadership style that can motivate employees.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background to the study
Research problem -
Objectives of study
Scope of study
Significant of study
Limitation of study
2.2 Literature review on motivation
2.2.1 Definition and nature of motivation
2.2.2 Motivational approaches
2.2.3 The motivational process
2.2.4 Motivation theories
2.2.5 The importance of motivating organization members
2.2.6 Strategies for motivating organization members
2.2.7 Implication of some of the motivation theories for Nigerian work environment
2.4 historical background of 7up Bottling Company
2.5 Summary of Review
3.2 Research design
3.3 The population and sampling
3.4 Sources of data
3.5 Operationlization of variables
3.6 The research instrument
3.7 Model specification and data analysis
4.2 Data analysis and interpretation
4.3 Discussion of findings
5.2 Summary of findings
LIST OF TABLE
Table 1: Distribution of respondents
Table 2: Distribution by age
Table 3: Distribution by qualification
Table 4: Distribution of work experience
Table 5: Distribution by marital status
Table 6: Motivation can improve productivity
Table 7: Factors that stimulate employees contribution to their organization
Table 8: Factors that discourage employees from contributing
their best to the organization
Table 9: Importance of recognition on future performance
Table 10: Workers/employees respond to motivation
Table 11: Relationship between motivations an productivity
Table 12: When performance is not rewarded
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 Motivational process
Figure 2: The need goal theory
Figure 3: Vroom expectancy theory of motivation
Figure 4: The Porter Lawler theory of motivation
Figure 5: Maslow hierarchy of needs
Figure 6: Unsatisfied needs of organization members
Figure 7: Major approaches to job design
LIST OF APPENDIX
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
There has been the problem of how to induce employee to stimulate better performance and boost or improve upon the existing level of administrative efficiency in most organizations
It becomes apparent that the administration efficiency in the most organization is static if not declining. An aversive situation of this nature, if not checked is bound to render such organization cripple. Thus, there is need for both public and private sector organizations to adopt strategic measure in other to advert such problems.
One of such measures as many can be operational in public and private sector organizations is motivation. Thus the workers needs to be stimulated to effect better performance, increase administrative output and productivity. Simply put a positive administration will best be achieved if the employee are induce to put in their best. So there is need to give workers both financial and non financial incentives. In developing countries like Nigeria where there is great urge for increasing productivity, emphasis should be geared towards motivating employee in other to achieve organization goals.
This however, has to be a very difficult task. Experts including behavioral scientists, Maslow (1943), have propounded various theories, programmes, models, and definitions, but the best method to motivate employees still remains a fundamental problem which is yet to be resolved.
The term motivation has been used in many contexts including momentary and non momentary. Thus a concise and unitary definition becomes arbitrary and also dysfunctional .Scholars such as Campbel (1970), Bittle and Ramsey` (1976) have therefore written about motivation under two distinct but closely related sets of ideas.
The first set of ideas referred to as "content theories of motivation" (Campbell, (1970) focuses on the environment and personal characteristics that serve to energize, activate or motivate the individual. The second set of idea is concerned with explaining how the individual chooses to engage in a particular behavior.
In Nigeria today, many entrepreneurs especially in the medium and small scale business, invest a lot of money on machines and buildings with hope of maximizing profit without taking the welfare of employees into consideration. In their pursuit of profit, they tend to forget that their workers should be happy at work and must have the right attitude to work. This state of mind can only be guaranteed through adequate motivation. Motivation and productivity have been formulated and various empirical findings point to the simple fact that motivation is a key variable in productivity.
No organization can succeed without certain level of commitment and effort from its members for that reason, manager and management scholars have always form theories about motivation. Thus, management of organizations is pre occupied with the aim of implementing the motivational strategies considered to achieving optimum productivity.
Manager of resources should be effective, efficient and productive. If you use people, your effectiveness and productivity may depend on the role of people in your team. Indeed, it may be suggested that one of the ways of evaluating the effectiveness of the manager is the extent to which he/she is able to direct the combine creative powers of people working with him/ her. This means that the effective manager is the one who motivate his/her subordinates to increase productivity in an organization, Akinmayowa (1996).
It is interesting to note that when candidate send in an application to a company for employment, he does so because he has chosen that organization among others and when he is employed he comes in with the set of needs, which wants to be satisfied through the job.
The extended family system that is operational in Africa, including Nigeria make the consideration of the needs of the employee accepts the offer of the employment because he believed that this needs and both of his dependants would be satisfied by the organization he has chosen to work for.
Motivation have been conceptualized by various administrative and management authors and their definitive exercise portray motivation to express "that which moves, propel need desires, wants or impulses within an individual which directly or indirectly towards the attainment of organizational goals, aims and objectives. Motivation and conditions of service focus on the need for and method of ensuring the continued performance of the employee on the job. It is an indisputable fact that employees motivation is bedrock of organization efficiency, in this light, motivation can be seen as the inevitable momentum that propels a smooth relationship between the jobs are the individuals needs and expectations.
The previous work by many researchers such as Maslow (1943), Taylor (1854-1917), Mayo(1880-1949) etc) have shown and established some fact about the relationship that exist between motivation and productivity in the work relation. Previous work has established a positive relationship that motivation can lead to productivity if well managed. In addition, since the relation between motivation and productivity is ongoing work relation, this project work seeks to build on the previous work in an attempt to foster and improve the relationship that exists between the concept of study.
1.2 THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In other to achieve the objective of this study the research shall attempt to provide answers to the following` questions
1. Does motivation improve productivity?
2. How does different set of motivation technique impact on employee?
3. How does employee respond to motivation?
4. Is there any positive relationship between motivation and productivity?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Having outlined the concept of motivation and productivity, it is necessary to examine the links or relationship between the two concepts. In real world, motivation is very difficult to measure among employees. Productivity, however is by far easier to measure or evaluate generally than human motivation. Thus, the relationship between motivation and productivity are not very straight forward, of course correlation tends to exist between the two concepts. However, the objectives of this research `work is to ascertain the relationship between the variable, which includes to:
Ascertain how motivation can improve productivity
Ascertain how different set of motivation techniques impact on employee.
Test how workers/ employees respond to motivation
Ascertain if there is any positive relationship between motivation and productivity of employees
1.4 FORMULATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: Motivation does not improve productivity
Hi: Motivation does improve productivity
Ho: Different sets of motivation techniques do not impact on employees.
Hi: Different sets of motivation techniques do impact on employees.
Ho: Workers/employees do not respond to motivation
Hi: Workers/employees do respond to motivation
Ho: There is no positive relationship between motivation and productivity
Hi: There is positive relationship between motivation and productivity
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The central idea of this research work is hinge on motivation as a means of increase productivity in business organizations. The staff of the 7up Bottling Company PLC, Benin City, Edo State were considered by the researcher. This study will cover a period of five years, from 2008-2012. This is to ascertain the effect of motivation on productivity of employees for the period under study.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant because it is going to generate data on the impact of motivation as a means of increasing productivity in an organization.
Motivation is all about the desire to achieve goals, people are motivated by growth extra responsibility, at the same time the organizational benefit from having its people focus on `higher strategies aims and activities, people in different roles will be motivated by different thing and particularly will require support and guidelines to work at a higher strategic level.
Therefore, this research will be significant to the following extent
1. It will help in positioning organization for higher productivity
2. It will help management to know how employee responds to different types of motivations
3. it will build on the existing knowledge of motivation.
4. It will also help other students who will research on the subject
5. To serve as a guide to managers on how to motivate it employee to achieve high `productivity at work.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the process of the research work, the researcher encounters some constraint that hinders effective research in this study. Some of the limitations are:
There is limitation of poor memory and beyond it remembering past facts of the researcher
Low response rate of respondents
The uncooperative attitude of some respondent limits the study
The structure and the standard format may force the respondent to give answer that they do not fully endorse.
The level of illiteracy among some of the respondents.
The research instrument adopted by the researcher is the simple random sampling method where all the items in the population stand equal chance of being selected. This approach helps to reduce selection bias and ensure the reliability of the research
6. The inability of the researcher to examine, all the possible samples also serve as a limitation. This is due to the fact that all possible sample in the sample frame were not examined
7. Insufficient time: The time for this research is not enough, as it is shared with other academic works
8. Insufficient Fund: This research work is hampered by insufficient fund, consequently impedes movement to and from various Libraries and other relevant sources of information.
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