THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN THE PROVISION OF HOUSING: A CASE STUDY OF EDO STATE DEVELOPMENT AND PROPERTY AUTHORITY
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Housing provision policies and approaches have long been implemented in many developing nations in a bid to ensure its affordability as an inevitable human need (Teck-Hong, 2012). Thus, public housing was born out of the clamour for improved and decent living conditions dated back to 1929, in the Bubonic Wave of 1928 – 1929 of Nigeria National Housing Planning (NHP) 1991 (Ademiluyi, 2010). Housing was treated as a basic necessity in line with other facilities as; good roads, hospitals, adequate water, electricity, school etc. One of the primary functions of public housing is to be used to redistribute income and correct imperfections of market situation. In order to increase housing stock in Nigeria, the government had used initiatives to create diverse strategies in both state and Federal Housing Corporations which included direct construction, establishment of the National Housing Fund, setting up of mortgage organization to mobilize fund etc. Despite all these efforts, the problems of inadequate funding, quality and acute shortage persisted (Ajakaiye and Fatokun, 2000; Ibem, 2010).
Ibem and Amole (2012) observed that, although housing is an integral part of human settlement that fulfils basic need, and has a profound impact on the quality of life, health, welfare as well as productivity of man; large proportion of urban residents in less developed countries do not have access to decent housing at affordable cost. As a result of this, inadequate housing condition has become an intractable challenge that has continued to receive attention from governments, professionals, developers and individuals in most developing countries. As part of human tradition which seeks to investigate, describe, understand, proffer solutions and take actions to ameliorate defects in living conditions, and enhance individual and collective well-being; both public and private sectors have continued to take actions aimed at addressing social and economic challenges posed by inadequate housing provisions in most countries of the world. These actions are in the form of legislations, policies, strategies and reforms, which most often have culminated in different housing programmes.
STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Nigeria as a developing nation with so much resources at its disposal should place much more emphasis on Housing because there can be no increase in the level of education, health and production when there is no provision of adequate Housing for the people.
Public housing programmes have been criticized for failing to provide quality, affordable and adequate housing units to target population in most developing countries. Ibem and Amole (2010), indicate that governments in developing countries are not relenting in their efforts at addressing the problem of providing adequate, affordable and sustainable housing. This is probably in recognition of government’s social responsibility in providing housing for its citizens and the fact that adequate housing provision is a key component of sustainable development. However, in more recent time, it is observed that the outcome of government efforts in addressing the housing challenge in many developing countries such as Nigeria is not well understood. According to the 1991 Nigerian National Housing Policy (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1991), lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation have contributed to failure of public housing programmes in this country.
Against this backdrop, the following research questions are raised:
Does adequate housing provision a key component of sustainable development?
Does public housing estates equipped with adequate supply of utilities and social infrastructures?
Does lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation contributed to the failure of public housing programmes in Nigeria?
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to examine the role of government in the provision of housing in Nigeria.
The specific objectives are:
To determine whether adequate housing provision is a key component of sustainable development.
To examine whether public housing estates equipped with adequate supply of utilities and social infrastructures.
To verify whether lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation contributed to the failure of public housing programmes in Nigeria.
The following hypotheses have been formulated to serve as a base for this research.
Ho: Adequate housing provision is not a key component of sustainable development.
H1: Adequate housing provision is a key component of sustainable development.
Ho: Public housing estates are not equipped with adequate supply of utilities and social infrastructures.
H1: Public housing estates are equipped with adequate supply of utilities and social infrastructures.
Ho: Lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation did not contribute to the failure of public housing programmes in Nigeria.
H1: Lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of housing policy implementation contributed to the failure of public housing programmes in Nigeria.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is undertaken to examine the role of government in the provision of housing in Nigeria.
The population of the study consists of all the Development and Property Authority in Nigeria, while sample size is restricted to some selected staff of the Edo State Development and Property Authority.
The time frame of this study is six (6) years i.e. (2006 – 2012).
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that this study would consolidate existing literature on the issues surrounding the relationship between the government and housing in Nigeria. The study would also facilitate the examination of the role of government in the provision of housing in Nigeria and thus boosting the empirical evidence from Nigeria.
Furthermore, given the empirical nature of the study, the outcome of this study would aid policy makers and regulatory bodies and policy simulation with respect to the selected variables examined in the study.
The result of the study would be of benefits to education analysts, and institutions in examining the effectiveness of the provision of housing in Nigeria.
It will also be useful in stimulating public discourse given the dearth of empirical researchers in this area from emerging economies like Nigeria.
Finally, it would also add to the available literature on the areas of study while also providing a platform for other researchers who may want to further this study.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Smallness of sample size: It is interesting to emphasize that the findings of this empirical research are not to be generalize for all housing estates in Nigeria, since our limited to a number of estate in Benin City, Edo State.
The ability of obtain a completely random sample.
Imprecise measurement of variables.
Inappropriate test statistic.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Government: The group of people with the authority to govern a country or state or the system by which a state or community is governed.
Housing: Buildings or other shelters in which people live.
Teck-Hong Tan, 2012. “Housing satisfaction in medium- and high-cost housing: The case of Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia”. Habitat International 36.108- 116.
Ademiluyi, I. A, (2010), “Public Housing Delivery Strategies In Nigeria: A Historical Perspective of Policies and Programmes”. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(6), 153-161.
Ibem, E. O. (2010), “An Assessment of the Role of Government Agencies in Public-Private Partnerships in Housing Delivery in Nigeria”. Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 15(2), 23–48.
Ibem, E. O. and Amole, O. O. (2010), Evaluation of Public Housing Programmes in Nigeria: A Theoretical and Conceptual Approach, The Built & Human Environment Review, 3:88-117.
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