THE EFFECT OF MOTIVATION ON EMPLOYEE’S JOB PERFORMANCE
(A CASE STUDY OF PETROLEUM TRAINING INSTITUTE, EFFURUN-WARRI)
The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of staff motivation on job performance. The Petroleum Training Institute, Effurun (PTI), Warri in Delta State, was chosen for the study to enable the researcher to compare and contrast and make general statement on staff motivation on job performance. In this study, two hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study (i) there is a relationship between staff motivation and job performance; (ii) the staff in PTI are more likely to be motivated by monetary incentives than any other incentives. The literature review comprised of relevant seminar papers, journals, unpublished texts and publishes textbooks, which helped strengthen the issues raised. Questionnaires were developed and administered to staff members of the PTI. One hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed in the organisation. Out of the total retrieved, one hundred (100) were used for the analysis. Based on the data collected and analysed, it was found that regular promotion, conducive working environment incentives such as car loans, bonus for excellent performance, ownership housing scheme, high wage or salary and numerous others would all motivate staff to improve on their performance in the organisation. It was found that “high wage or salary” motivates the Nigerian worker more than anything else. It was so established that there is a positive relationship between motivation and job performance in the organisations; indicating that, though the motivational needs in the organisations varied in some aspects vis-a-vis the nature of the organisations, they all tended towards improved job performance the organisations. This is because, the analysis in the organisation showed a positive relationship in the hypotheses tested. Finally, the research results showed us the problems and circumstances militating against improved performance of jobs by staff in the organisation. Solutions were then recommended to enhance improved job performance and to obviate deterioration on job performance.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study
Statement of the study
Objectives of study
Significance of study
Scope of study
Limitation of study
Operational definition of terms
Review of Related Literature
Abraham H. Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs Theory
Clayton P. Modified Need Theory (ERG)
Herzberg Two Factor Theory
McGregor Theory X and Y Theory
J. S. Adam’s Theory
Victor H. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
The Causal Chain and Motivation
Motivation and Performance
Management By Objective (MBO)
Compensation and Motivation
Area of the study
Population of the study
Sample and sampling technique
Reliability and validity
Method of data analysis
Presentation and data analysis
Organisation of data
Analysis of data
Results and discussion
Summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations
Summary of findings
Suggestion for further studies
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The human factor (man) is the most complex and most important factor to the success of any organisation. It determines the fortunes or misfortune of the organisation. Because of its (man) strategic importance, it has becomes increasingly imperative for Human Resource managers to seek for means and ways of getting individual employees united and committed towards the attainment of set goals and objectives. Most managers however, tend to overlook the impact which motivation has on individual employee performance and in the process, jeopardize organisational goals.
To actually determine the potential capacity of employees, researchers have resorted to investigating what really influences job performance of employees. The intent of such study is to provide an insight into factors which influences job performance of workers.
There are several factors which could influence job performance, since human beings behave in different ways, so are their various needs. All sorts of factors can be listed including money, good working conditions, interesting work, a chance to do something one likes, and an opportunity for growth and development. These factors may impair the job performance of employees if not well appreciated. However, if we are to look for one overriding theme in motivation, it might well be need satisfactions. By this, I mean that people have desires or need that requires satisfaction. If the organisation provides the means for meeting these needs, it can motivate its employees.
Having stated that one of the key elements in human resource capital management is motivation, what then can be said to be the motivational factors which has influenced employees either to perform positively or negatively in their various jobs. Over the years, taking the Petroleum Training Institute (PTI) as a case study for the research work. But before then, there are some theories, which would guide the understanding of the needs of employees in an organisation which if, pried into by employers, will go a long way to enhance high productivity of employees.
To this end, the works of some social scientist, which have postulated some theories about motivational techniques would be attempted. Such theories of motivation include Abraham Maslow needs theory of motivation, Fredericks Herbergs two factor theory,
Douglas McGregor theory X and Y, Alderjer modified theory, Victor Vroom expectancy and Adams equity theories are the few motivation theories that would be examined in this study.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
For a long time, there has been great concern about the poor performance and lukewarmness of employees in several organisations. Opinions on the causes of poor performance of employees in their work place had varied overtime. Some are of the opinions that, employees are inefficient, others say that employees are slow, lazy and waste time over given tasks. Most times, these have been passing comments which had required conscious investigations on how to get employees to work willingly and enthusiastically performing their jobs in order to achieve organisational goals.
In some occasions, employees perform poorly when it is glaring to them that they have been cheated or deprived of their rights and privileges. This is a problem that employers need to tackle vigorously if management is desirous to attain organisational goals.
The problem therefore bothers on the inability of many organisations to sufficiently induce their employees towards the attainment of set organisational objectives. A lot have been said and written on the subject motivation; in spite of this, employers of labour have not fully embraced motivational techniques as a way .and means to encourage their employees for greater performance in their jobs. For instance, most organisations still adopt pay policy that are not commensurate with what is obtainable in their industry. Effective job performance requires staff whose basic needs are met otherwise, it would results in disillusionment and frustration to the staff and consequently leads to or brings about low job performance. It is therefore imperative for managers to have knowledge of what a worker wants from his job and this knowledge is essential for personnel policies and practices. In this vain, this research study will examine fully the impacts of staff motivation on job performance and X-ray how much of modern management techniques of motivation are employed by employers of labour for positive outcomes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The objectives of the study are as follows:
To determine the paramount needs of the employees and what can induce them to perform their jobs well.
Identify (if any) differences between the motivational needs of employees in organisations especially PTI.
Help employers of labour to ascertain from time to time the motivational needs of their staff in order to bring out the best in them.
To contribute, stimulate and encourage future research into the phenomenon (staff motivation), so as to improve knowledge and understanding on the subject matter.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS/HYPOTHESIS FORMULATION
For the purpose of this study, the following research questions are raised.
There is a relationship between staff motivation and job performance.
The employees in PTI are more likely to be motivated by monetary incentives than any other incentives.
Hi: There is effect motivation on employees job performance
Ho: There is no effect motivation on employees job performance
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant because it seeks to examine a host of factors that could enhance the job performance of an average employee. The study will also enable the researcher to make necessary recommendations that would be useful for employers that may be interested in adequately motivating their staff to enable them contribute effectively towards the attainment of organisational goals.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY
The scope of the study is to determine the effects of employee’s motivation on the performance of jobs in the organisation under study. Emphasis would be placed on the reward packages for employees in the organisation over time and determine if the reward packages among other factors have been very crucial in the job performance of the employees. The organisation in question is the Petroleum Training Institute (P.T.I) a service organisation.
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The project was carried at the same with other academic activities as a result of this, the researcher encountered a lot of constrain and difficulties while trying to meet both academic obligation.
Again, financial problem contributed to the limitation of this study carrying out research of this and requires traveling from one place to other to collect useful facts all this requires money.
Also some respondents were unwilling to furnish the researchers with the information inspite of prior explanation that the research was rely an academic one. Also they withheld relevant information due to their gross illiteracy.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined as they are used in thus study or research work.
Employee: An employee may be defined as “a person in the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed”.
An employee can also be define as a person who contributes labour and expertise to an endeavour of an employer and is usually hired to perform specific duties which are packaged into a job.
Human capital management: This can be define as the stock of competence, knowledge and personality attributes embodied in the ability to perform labour so as to produce economic value. It is the attributes gained by a worker through education and experience.
Human capital management is sometimes referred to as a “soft” management skill, effective practice within an organisation requires a strategic focus to ensure that people resources can facilitate the achievement of organisational goals.
Firm: A firm can be define as a commercial partnership of two or more persons, especially when incorporated.
It can also be seen as the name or designation under which a company transacts business.
Organisation: Is a social group which distributes tasks for a collective goal. It can also be seen as a social unit of people, systematically structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue a need.
Motives: Motives are defined as needs, wants, drive or impulse within the individual.
Motivation: Motivation is the process of creating organisational conditions that will result in employees striving to attain company goals. It may also be seen as the factor that encourages the worker to perform his job efficiently that is to put in his best in accordance with the objectives of organisation.
Intrinsic Motivation: It is self generated factors, which influence employees to behave in a particular way or to move in a particular way or in a particular direction. This, includes the need for advancement, achievement, self-fulfillment and the work itself.
Extrinsic Motivation: This is what is provided for employees to get them motivated and it includes financial reward, fringe benefits, praise, recognition of achievement etc.
Needs: Sunger (1990) posited that needs activate the motivation process to direct the action of the behaviour, to determine the strength of the response and to sustain the duration of the involved, Needs are very important and for any organisation to get the maximum potentials of their employees, the management will have to understand the needs of the employees and then, provide the right incentives for them in order to reduce tension and sustain high productivity.
Job Performance: Organisations have specific goals and they employ personnel in specific position to collectively use and control organisation’s resources in order to achieve set goals. This, from the organisation arise goals of their various units and hence of the employees which make up the unit. Job performance is therefore the measure in qualitative terms of how each employee meets his particular set of goals in the course of pursuing the collective organisation goals.
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