THE APPLICATION OF MARKET CONCEPT IN BANKING INDUSTRY
A CASE STUDY FOR AFRICA (UBA) PLC WARRI
The banking industry is undergoing a period of transformation and this requires new orientation on the part of the banks. In this new competitive environment, banks have to re-think their total marketing strategies and come to terms with the necessity for marketing of services. The objectives of this study arte to determine if the bankers are effectively customer-oriented of this study are to meet the challenges posed by the changing environment and to determine the marketing philosophy or orientation of the banks (represented by their employees) vis-à-vis current happening in the industry. In course of the literature review, five distinct marketing philosophies were identified. They are the production orientation, product orientation and societal marketing concepts. In order to achieve the objectives of this study, opinion of the bankers and their customer were sampled through administered questionnaire and personal interviews. The marketing philosophy of banks as represented by their employees and customer were found not to be effectively customer oriented. The conclusion of the study is that marketing concept is not effectively practiced by banks. The hypothesis that the marketing concept or orientation in the bank is dependent on their marketing training, environmental factors, such as competition in banking, government policy, technology in banking, legal provision, banking culture and clients behavoiur and the banks presents marketing concept is bad could not be disproured thus they were accepted. Recommended strategies for introducing and establishing marketing task force and getting a managing director or chief executives, that is market oriented to initiate the Moure. The argument for a market orientation in a competitive environment remains that an organization has to be close to its customer in order to identify their whole organization towards satisfying them better than their competitors.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The banking industry is under going a period of transformation and this requires new orientation on the bank management. There is general agreement on the role of marketing ion every organization. According to Kotler (1980) marketing is important not only to economic institution such as manufacturing industries, wholesaler, retailer but to all organizations “that have something to see” this statement suffice to say with the conceptual managerial philosophy of marketing which recognize that organizational effectiveness are function of identifying varying customer/client needs better than those competitors, (Awko et al 1979). While (Mc chure, 1989) define bank marketing as the management which seeks to direct flow of banking services profitably to selected customer’s the banking Act of 1969. See banking services as involving receiving money from outside source as deposit irrespective of payment of interest or the granting of money loans and acceptance of credit or purchase of bill cheeps or purchase and sales of securities on the account of others or the incurring of the obligation to secure claims in respect of loans prior to their marketing or the assumption guarantee and other warrantes for others of the effecting of transfer and clearing of such other transaction, on the recommendation of the central bank, by order published in the federal (official) designate as banking business.
The increasing need for marketing in banking systems from the going changes in the industries has treightend competition is often said to be product of marketing, competition in the banking industry is not limited to banks but include competition from such other financial institutions as insurance, saving and loans, banks and building societies.
The success of any bank in this turbulent, competitive and volatile business environment will largely depend on its ability to compete successfully. In order to achieve co-operate objectives, therefore, banks should not only be seen as having the knowledge of marketing in all faces of their activities. The effective and strategy application of the conceptual philosophy of marketing will not only result in the efficient utilization of resources but by so doing, a considerable competitive advantage might be (created) achieved and sustained by practicing bankers. It is disserting however to observe that inspire of available evidence and like nature on the great advantage provided business organization with the successful application of marketing concept most banks in Nigeria are still at the first stage of the marketing orientation (product concept). Some however, have risen to the third stage (selling concept), which is considered the best stage at banking industry in a nation’s economy includes the provision of equitable banking services to its customers, it is imperative therefore, that they administer their marketing activities effectively and efficiently.
They are required top accept wholly the most modern marketing concept aimed at consumer’s superiority by offering maximum services and demonstrating that these services are superior to those offered by other competing institutions. The marketing concept which according to Kotler (2006) “holds that the key to achieving organization objective consist in determining the need and wants to target market and delivering the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors” this should form the integral part of corporate objectives of banks.
Banks have to go out to approach client requiring their services.
The services most be offered to the maximum satisfaction of existing and potential customers. The fact is a revolution or transition from passivity and quire solid discretion to active and purposeful aggressiveness. In the banking industry and United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc in particular, lack of in-depth knowledge and understanding of the importance of the marketing concept and non-adherence to it’s tenet vis-auis native application largely accounts for inability to gain favourable competitive advantages over and above other participant in the industry.
The dogmatic approaches that characterize their activities it in utter disregard to marketing concept in the view of this research proposes the adoption and practice of marketing orientation to banks marketing as a key to success of banks in a competitive environment such as ours in Nigeria. Customer’s satisfaction is the best indicator of company’s future profit.
In appreciation to the great contribution of marketing concept in our banking industry is the concept taken seriously? Has the application been successful. The researcher will conclude by suggesting ways towards improving upon the application of the concept in the banking operations that is being carried by the banks.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Over the years, bank customers have been complaining about the poor quality of service they receive from their banks. This is why the researcher wants to find out empirically why the banks do not provide quality service to their customers.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of applying the marketing concept into the banking industry is:
(a) To scrutinize the marketing concept by exhibiting reasons why the banking industry should adopt it.
(b) To make possible forecast on the degree of customers satisfaction vis-viser banker customer relationship when modern marketing concept is adopted.
(c) To examine customer awareness of the range of banking services.
(d) To examine the perception of the b bankers to the adoption of the modern marketing concept.
(e) To assess the level of customers satisfaction with the banking services they have received.
(f) To scrutinize the obstacles both internal and external which tend to militate against effective marketing of banking service in Nigeria.
(g) To suggest ways by which bankers can effectively and efficiently apply the marketing concept that will enable them satisfy their present and potential customers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The banking institute is important in the economic life of any nation. The business of banks is the provision of services and this depends entirely on customer for their existence study will review some characteristics and strategy of bank marketing in the banking industry.
The information obtained from this study may also highlight the short comings of banks on their awareness of bank marketing which will in turn enable them improve on their services, compete more favourably, develop the positive attitude of bankers of bank marketing vis-à-vis the adoption of the marketing concept in order to realize corporate objectives.
Finally, it is hoped that further knowledge obtained from this study will help in providing a theoretical premise upon which future research in this area could based.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the application of marketing concept in the banking industry with a case study of United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc.
The study is only geared to show that a successful application of marketing concept to the economic institution can also be applied in the banking industry.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research question shall look into and suggest solutions to such question as:
a. Are banking employees market oriented?
b. Are banking employees adequately equipped to meet the demand made on them by customers?
c. Is marketing received as a collective responsibility by all employees of the banks?
d. Are banks committed to improving quality of service?
1.7 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
In the course of this research work, the following are hypothesis to be tested.
Ho: The marketing orientation of banker is not dependent on their marketing training
Hi: The marketing orientation of banker is dependent on their training Ho.
Environmental factor such as competition, government policy, technology and client behaviour are not relevant in application of marketing concept.
Ho: the banks present marketing concept is not bad.
Hi: the banks present marketing concept is bad
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There is know study that is completely perfect, the limitation of this work came from low response from the respondent. Another constraint is time which is the major limiting factor in the carrying out this work, it is not easy combining work and other school assignment which is tedious. Most things required in the work involve moving out to collect material from library and this affected the volume of the work as there was the problem of time management.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
During the course of the research work certain words and concepts were used to make for a better understanding and it is imperative that we define them below.
MARKETING: marketing has so many definitions but for the purpose of this study, it is the systematic way of studying and satisfying customers needs and to facilitate exchange with view to achieving the organizational goals.
MARKETING CONCEPT: This is the concept that holds the key to achieving organizational goals and making the company more effective than communicating superior customer value to its chosen market.
MARKETING ORIENTATION: This is the result of practicing marketing concept; it requires the company and its employee to achieve high customer satisfaction level, strategy to achieve corporate objectives. This is achieving by keeping very close to the market and watchful in the company’s business environment and not to lost track of changing market trends.
SERVICE: refers to any act of performance that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of any thing its may or may not be tired to a physical product Kother (1986).