STRATEGIES FOR AMELIORATING OBSOLENCENCE OF STAFF QUARTER AT FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC IDAH
This study was conducted to investigate the strategies to be adopted in obsolescence at staff quarters of the Federal Polytechnic Idah. Study is significant as it add to the body of literature on the topic under study, to direct the, four research questions and hypothesis were formulated. The research was carried out using a sample of 44 questionnaire were gathered from Idah, Kogi state. The data collected were analyze using simple percentages and correlation analysis which was used to test the hypothesis. From the analysis of the data collected, the following findings were made. That, obsolescence of the staff quarter has no significant effect on the properties within the study area. It is also discovered from the findings that there is no significance influence on the strategies adapted to ameliorating obsolescence in the study area. It is revealed from the study that the current condition of the staff quarter at federal polytechnic Idah needs urgent attention and this can be observed as majority of the respondents strongly that the factors responsible for the staff quarter obsolescence is both human and environmental factors. It was also discovered from the findings that the effect of obsolescence on properties within the study area generates different environmental risk and therefore needs to be fixed or attended to. From the findings the following recommendation were made that the current condition of the staff quarter at Federal Polytechnic Idah should properly looked into and consider a means of ameliorating it . that those factors that lead to the obsolescence of the staff quarter such as human, environmental and other factors should be given more attention to, and in doing this will g a long way in reducing the cost of livelihood in the staff quarter.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
2.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Aim and objectives
1.4 Research hypothesis
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope of the study
1.7 limitation of the study
1.8 Brief description of the study area
1.9 Definition of terms and acronyms used in the study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The concept of housing obsolescence
2.2 Causes of building obsolescence
2.3 Forms of housing obsolescence
2.3.1 Economic obsolescence
2.3.2 Functional obsolescence
2.4 Sustainability and obsolescence
2.4.1 Perceiving Sustainability as new form of obsolescence
2.5 Strategies of dealing with building obsolescence
2.6 Maintenance strategy for ameliorating housing obsolescence
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Source of data
3.2 Data collection techniques
3.3 population of the study
3.4 Sampling size
3.5 method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Data Presentation and analysis
4.2 Discussion of results
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The concept of ‘obsolescence’ is an essential consideration during the assessment of value (Reed 2007). Although there has been an increased attention placed on the demand for sustainable buildings such as via the use of rating tools, the future income stream of sustainable properties including capital expenditure may be misunderstood if obsolescence is not adequately recognised and dealt with in property management. Although there are many forms of obsolescence, arguably the physical, functional and economic impairments remain the core types observed in property and result in depreciation, which in turn is a loss in property value. Obsolescence may affect the land and/or building component in varying degrees, as well as commencing at different times and affecting the highest and best use (Lipscomb, 2012). For example obsolescence may commence in the initial design phase and deterioration may start before construction has even started (Bole et al. 2009). Understanding exactly what obsolescence is and how it affects a property asset is critical although arguably not fully understood either inside and/or outside the property field (Laronge, 2011).
Obsolescence simply means an old fashioned and no longer useful, it is not necessarily age, however, change that is the chief cause of obsolescence.
The oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary(6th edition), defines the adjective obsolete as no longer used or practiced outmoded or worn away effaced, eroded, worn out, dilapidated, atrophied and the non obsolescence as the process or fact of becoming obsolete or out dated or of falling into disuse or more specific the process whereby or states at which machinery consumer goods become obsolete as a result of technological advances and changes in demand.
Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary (7th edition, 2007) adds to the adjective, no longer current old fashioned.
Cowan and Bryon (2005) see obsolescence as a significant decline in the competitiveness usefulness or value or value of an article.
Obsolesces occurs generally due to change or due to changes in user preference requirements or styles it is distinct from fall in value (depreciate) due to physical deterioration or normal wear and tear.
Obsolescence is a major factor in generating risk and may require write off the value of the obsolete. Items against earnings to comply with the accounting principle of showing inventory at lower cost or market value.
This article explores the characteristics and causes of obsolescence resulting in a conceptual model of causes of obsolescence and effects; it distinguishes between the hard physical and behavioral factors. It shows the inverse relation between the increase of complexity of types of obsolescence and the decrease of possibilities to manage it. Obsolesces as a process to described as the growing divergence between the declining performance of buildings and the rising expectations of users and properties. Obsolescence is often regarded as the start of the end of life phase of building. However, obsolescence is not an inevitable natural phenomenon, but a function of human action reads decision making, it does not necessarily read demolition as demolition is not always preceded by obsolescence.
Obsolescence is a serious threat for built property given it’s immobile, long lasting and capital significance; minimizing obsolescence is important for the presentation of the change of physical, economical and societal investment involved.
However, facing the paradigm change from new construction of maintenance and adoption and the resulting huge task to improve the performance of the existing stock. The knowledge about the management of obsolescence is insufficient further research about the cause of obsolescence and about decision making about life cycle extension or demolition is therefore required(Bryon, 2005).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The major problem of this study is to access different stages on residential property. The lack of maintenance is one of the major problems of obsolescence; maintenance is required to maintain a building initial performance capacity. Without maintenance, the performance will not meet the demand and eventually drop below the limit of acceptance of users of residents and the expected service life will not be reached resulting in serious loss of efficiency.
Ageing is one of the problems of obsolescence which in turn influences the life expectancy of a building.
The problem of housing is not only limited to inadequacy in terms of the number provided or available, but also their current or possible future condition with a view to proper habitability and possibility of becoming obsolete. Indeed building houses at an increase rate can never eliminate the problem of obsolescence, although it may satisfy certain portion of the population which can afford to take advantage of such dwellings, it will at the same time undertake the relative deprivation of those who are forced to occupy the older housing which have non of the advantages of the ones constructed recently, (Hendry, 20008).
Like every other institutions, Federal Polytechnic Idah has many residential buildings, publicly owned staff houses and owner – occupier houses distributed to the polytechnic environ. These houses were constructed years ago, most of which are apparently in deplorable conditions. Due to this, many occupants are currently living under unacceptable standard conditions which eventually lead many to vacate their accommodations. This had and is still exposing many houses to vandalization and dilapidation thereby causing loss of revenue to the institution and negate the aim and objective of such housing scheme. Ironically, similar conditions have befallen many houses which were briefly occupied or not occupied at all after commissioning. These problems among other prompted this research. To achieve the objectives of this work, the researcher is intended to ask this pertinent questions: What is the current condition of the staff quarter at federal polytechnic Idah?
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to investigate the strategies to be adopted in obsolescence at staff quarters of the Federal Polytechnic Idah.
The objectives of this study are as follows;
1. To evaluate the current condition of the staff quarter at federal polytechnic Idah
2. To identify factors that leads to the obsolescence of the staff quarter.
3. To assess the effect of obsolescence on properties within the study area.
4. To investigate strategies that will aid ameliorating obsolescence in the study area.
H1: Obsolescence of the staff quarter has no significant effect on the properties within the study area.
H2: There is no significance influence on the strategies adapted to ameliorating obsolescence in the study area.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be significant to students of real estate profession as a reference source to and their academic work.
It will also be of immense benefit to real estate practitioners in their practices, most essentially,
It will add to exiting literatures on obsolescence and serve as a reference material for researchers in the built environment.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This work is strictly restricted to the federal polytechnic Idah staff quarters and strategies to solving the problem of obsolescence.
1.7 Limitations of the study
This researcher faced some challenges in course of carrying out this study these included:
Difficulties in obtaining certain documents and as most of the documents are considered to be very important to the organization, thus preventing the researcher from getting them.
A work of this nature requires much money for financing the materials and sourcing information needed. Also collation prolonged leaving little time for presentation and analysis of data since the researcher was given schedule time of completion.
Also the time allocated to this research work was inadequate and insufficient for the researcher to get all the required information for the topic.
Another limitation was the non-availability of relevant and vital documents in the school library, which could have be useful in making an extensive research work and the library did not keep any special manuals for the topic which the researcher could make reference to.
This research work was undertaken when the writer was fully engaged in the class work. This has greatly constrained the research work because the researcher has to pay attention to normal class activities.
1.8 Brief Description of the Study Area
Idah is chosen as a case study for this research work, Idah is a town in Kogi State, Nigeria, on the eastern bank of the Niger River in the middle belt region of Nigeria. It is the headquarter of the Igala Kingdom, and also a smaller Local Government Area with an area of 36 km² around the town, with a population of 79,815 at the 2006 census.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS AND ACRONYMS USED IN THE STUDY
According to Bryon (2005) obsolescence is significant decline in the competitiveness usefulness or value of an article or property. Deterioration is a downgrading of the effectiveness or physical characteristics (Colour, Consistency e.t.c) of a substance due to faulty packing or abnormal storage conditions. It is also the falling apart, something once in good condition is now weakened, worn out or otherwise in decline.
Depreciation is a permanent and containing diminution in the also a less valuable over a period of time (Bryon, 2005). It is the method of allocating the cost of a tangible asset over its useful life.
This is the type of leased property containing either a single family, a multi family structure that is available for occupation for non business purposes (Bryon, 2005).
Obsolete simply means no longer appropriate for the purpose it was obtained due to either the availability of better alternatives in user requirements. It is also said to be something no longer used by anyone.
ACRONYMS USED IN THE STUDY
HVAC: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
API: Application programming interface
DCF: Discounted cash flow
PPM: Planned Preventive Maintenance