MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND ORGANISATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
It is the responsibility of managers and to manage and to achieve results through the efforts of other people. This involves the effective utilization of human resources. The way in which managers exercise their responsibilities and duties is important and account for their managerial behaviour.
The first step in the effective management of other people is confidence in your own ability and awareness of your own strengths and weakness (Onuoha, 1991).
An essential ingredient of any successful manager, is the ability to handle people effectively people respond according to the manner in which they are treated. The behaviour of managers and their stage of management will confluence the effort expended and the level of performance achieved by subordinate staff.
Management style can be as important as management competence. The general involvement towards flatter organisation structures, flexible working and greater emphasis on an integrating effort rather than a traditional controlling style of management.
According to Macken (1994), “management has become more about managing people than managing operations, unless we have harnessed the full potential of out people, even the best plan are likely to be less than successful”.
To achieve organisational effectiveness, managers must provide and environment in which employees will thrive best and promote increased individual performance. The way managers generally approach the performance of their job and the behaviour they display towards subordinate staff is likely to be conditioned by their pre-dispositions above people.
When staffs of an organisation perceive their manager as being friendly and trustworthy, they are likely to be positive in their approach to assign duties and responsibilities. Manager’s attitude towards people, his managerial/leadership grid, the management systems and the application of management by objectives (MBO) in systems dynamics, are essential elements in determining managerial behaviour.
In Nigeria for example, most organisation including educational institutions of higher learning have their managers or administrators exhibit characteristics that are not in line with organisational expectations while others simply personalize their office. This attitude of managers is applicable to both foreign and indigenous firms.
Drawing on Maslow’s hierarchy of need model, McGregor (1959), put forward two suppositions about human nature and behaviour at work. He argued that the style of management adopted is a function of the manager’s attitude towards people and assumptions about human nature and behaviour. The two suppositions are called X and Y theory and are basic assumptions about people and work. Theory X represent the carrot and stick assumption on which traditional organisations are based and was widely accepted and practiced before the development of the human relations approach. The assumptions of the theory are;
- The average person is lazy and has inherent dislike for work.
- Most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and threatened with punishment if the organisation is to achieve its objectives.
- Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels.
- The average person avoids responsibility, prefers to be directed, lacks ambition and values security most of the time.
The central principle of this theory is direction and control through a centralized system of organisation and the exercise of authority.
On the other hand, theory Y presuppose that an average person sees work as natural as play if the is given the freedom to exercise his ingenuity. Human resources management is formed along these two extremes. This study will determine if there is any relationship between human resources management and organisational effectiveness. If a relationship exists, to what extend do they affect each other?
This research study will among other things examine (if any) the relationship between human resources management and organisational effectiveness in both foreign and indigenous firm. Besides, the study will seek to determine the impact of manager’s attitude toward people on organisational effectiveness in both foreign and indigenous firm operating in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Human resource management is practiced in organisations to encourage production. The effective utilization of human resource management can either enhance organisational effectiveness or polarize it. The behaviour and attitude of managers in implementing the human resource policy, have contributed towards creating or conducting atmosphere needed for production either on foreign and indigenous firms. Organisational effectiveness, according to Luthan (1992), depends on the manager’s behaviour. The behaviour of the manager in shaping the organisation is a major factor in that direction.
More significantly, does the skills possessed by managers affect their managerial performance, are some of the issues to be addressed in this study.
Also to be examined in this research study is whether a relationship exists between managerial skills and organisational effectiveness. Besides this study will also determine of a manager’s perception of his employee’s behaviour is a function of the organisational environment in foreign and indigenous firms.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The purposes of this study are to determine;
1) Whether the skills possessed by managers affects their managerial performance.
2) If managerial skills affect organisational effectiveness?
3) Whether foreign firms use different managerial styles that affect organisational effectiveness?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The significance of this study includes the following;
1) It provides a basis for management practitioners to identify the components of managerial behaviour and organisational effectiveness in both foreign and indigenous firms.
2) It will provide needed information that will be required by policy makers in formulating policies that will guide managerial behaviour in Nigeria and foreign firms.
3) It will serve as a reference point to future researchers.
4) To management practitioners, this study will help identify the attributes required of a manager, which will be of great need during recruitment process.
5) The study will also provide or identify the parameters upon which the effectiveness of an organisation can be measured.
6) It will provide a basis of comparison between organisational effectiveness and managerial behaviour in both foreign and indigenous firms operating in Nigeria.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
1) Does the skills possessed by managers affect their managerial performance at work?
2) Do managerial skills affect organisational effectiveness?
3) Do foreign firms use different managerial styles that affect organisational effectiveness?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Hi: Manager’s perception of employee’ behaviour is a function of the organisation environment.
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This study covers only foreign and indigenous firms in Delta and Edo State respectively. This investigation is also aimed at identifying any relationship (if any) between managerial behaviour in foreign and indigenous firms. Such variables as attitudes, beliefs, perceptions and values are also studied to determine the extent to which they influence managerial and organisational effectiveness.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
In this study, questionnaire was the main instrument used in gathering data. There is always a degree of error in the final analysis of the data gathered by means of questionnaire. This error may result from the subjective judgment of the subjects as well as their attitudes towards the completion of the questionnaire and therefore, this study may suffer from the same short comings.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms have been operationally defined to guide the study.
Managerial behaviour: This refers to the overall attitude of a manager towards his employees at work, and the employees respond according to the way they are treated.
Organisational effectiveness: The extent to which an organisation achieves its set objectives at a given period of time.
Organisation: These are social constructs created by groups in the society to achieve specific purposes by means of planned and co-ordinate activities.
Public sector organisation: These are organisations that are owned, controlled and managed by the government.
Effectiveness: This is concerned with doing the right things and relating to input and what the manager does.
Behaviour and social variables: This provides the framework for conceptualizing behaviour in organisation and includes attitudes, opinions, values, motivation, needs, expectations, intelligence, abilities, personality, etc.
Management: The process of utilizing human and material resources to achieve a predetermined goal of an organisation.
People: The nature of the members undertaking the series of activities as defined by the behavioural and society variables.