EFFECT OF COMPUTERIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF BANKING SECTOR
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In today world we are totally living in a computerized world and we have lost the human element. Many companies have transitioned their information totally to computers and software packages that has moved many people out 0f jobs. We are completely dependent on computers and ability to do task on our own has become very limited.
Computerization has been a revolution in the banking sector. The advent of computers has enormously increased the banking capabilities of the banks and they are able to offer better and wider range of services to their customers. Internet banking, mobile banking, ATMS etc. are all sector. Banks are able to expand at a great rate and offer services to more and more customers because of the use of computers. No organization can offered to operate effectively without adequate and timely information. Baridam (2005), said that information is very important as it serves as a guide for planning, controlling and decision making by both corporate organization and individuals. However, as important as information is, it is not sourced and kept or stored any how or anywhere, as it may be needed at any time for guide and quick action. It is therefore very demanding that information be kept in a safe place that is very easy to react, and in a manner that will
Be very easy to locate and identify particularly information needed.
In the past so many systems has been used store information for example Unoka in Chinua Achebe’s work little “things fall apart” used while indigos that Is a kind of chalk to mark is wall lives that signify his creditors and the amount he borrowed from each of them. The lives he marked servers as both a reminder and as well an information. Nevertheless, as a man made tremendous progress in the journey of life, he indented new way of story information. According to Hornogreen and Harrisan (2000) dinners club was the first credit card company it started in 1952 as a club for frequent dinner by a man who ran out of many at a restaurant.
Before 2005 dinner club service representatives had to start a file for each other and card holder inquiry, keep track of the accumulating paper and until it had all been received, make decision, and then contact the card holder. All these file work kept on a paper work. The personal card group handles about 10,000 pieces of correspondence a month, so there was a lot of clerical effort maintaining the paper files; with the image of processing system which can convert pictures, drawings and written characters to machines in readable form. All correspondence to this personal utilized image is stored on an optical storage system and given four indices for retrieval purposes date retrieved. Date of credit card change account number and amount. From then, only the electronic images are used, the paper is discarded. Information in computer is very important to both corporate organization, governmental and individuals. But the banking sections benefits more from individuals of computerization. Specially the commercial banks than any other section.
According to Ajiel and Ezi (2000) commercial banks performed the major function namely acceptance of deposit, granting of loan and the operation of their payment and settlement mechanism. In other to perform the mentioned functions efficiently and effectively, electronic banking has been invented to replace the old way of traditional banking operation. According to I .N.UCHIME (2OO7) unpublished in Nigeria electronic banking is an innovation whereby the banking operation and either partly or entire computerized. It is therefore, expected that just as money system replace the barter system and solves problems of long time spent in searching for coincidental goods about from one problems of carrying heavy goods about from one market to the other so also electronic banking should solve the problem of long queue in the banking hall, much time spent in truncation (dropping) business in bank as well as the problem of carrying voluminous amount of money from one place to another.
However, it is globally belief that the computers are able to provide useful information if properly fed with a reasonable or it will result in “garbge in garbage out” the use of computer to carry out a very wide range of activities for work, study and leisure has become part of our everyday life. It is no longer something that you may want to use if you are interested; rather like motor car it is an essential part of our lives. We are constantly told that anyone can use a computer, and in some extent this is true. As we become more and more upon technology this will not be enough computer in commercial and industrial setting have been around for several decides, nothing new about that. What is new however is the availability of computing power at modest cost to managers and workers throughout business organization and banking sectors However, in the banking sector computer has been used in various areas carrying out their day to day activities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
Modern technology have brought about the use of computer system in all areas of our human endeavor’s in Nigeria and other African countries workers see this as an attempt to replace them and to result into mass retrenchment or close their jobs. They always believe that where computers are installed will require less human effort to perform the desired operation. The problem of this study can be stated as; does the computer effectively assist in the banking sector?
In some banks customers spend too much time waiting to attend to and at earlier pointed out. There is delay in payment of cheque which leads to the adaption of electronic banking transaction system.Adoption of electronic banking which suppose to ease banking transaction rather resulted in woes to costumers. Most people complain of time wasted in banks, this occurs when there is power in banks resulting to slow down in operation.
Another problem that emerged was that banks do not Have information backup to fall back on should there be any computer break down in investing in electronic banking, the country will need large amount of financial resources in computer technology obviously, the resources is in short supply in Nigeria couple with high level of poverty. For an efficient functioning of electronic payment system, there must be availability of a infrastructural facility such as electricity and telecommunication network, however, power supply fluctuate and there is still constant failure links in networks. Since earlier 2000, banks have been developing and introducing payment card, for the customers as well as deploy ATM’s cards usage was however low due to lack of interconnectivity i.e switching platform to interconnect the ATM’s for car holders.
The information technology and computerization of banking sector in operation of the commercial banks in Nigeria among other sectors has brought about several noticeable development but at the same time it brings about it attendant problems.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This research seeks to pursue the following objectives.
1 To determine the effect of computerization on commercial banks high performance.
2 To determine the association between achieving the objective / benefit of electronic banking and irregular electric power supply and telecommunication services by government in Nigeria.
3 To determine the possible solution to the problem that emanates from electronic banking that will enhance commercial banks.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This research seeks to provide answers to this question.
1 Does the effect of computerization on commercial banks have high performance?
2 What is the association between achieving the objectives of electronic banking and irregular electronic power supply and tele communication services by government in Nigeria?
3 What is the possible solution to the problems that emanates from electronic banking that will enhance commercial banks?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The concept of computer technology and internet system has transformed the entire universal into a global village. The banking sector should not be left out of the innovation in information technology for a more efficient management with the advent of computers; banks offer varieties of services which range from ultimate teller machine (ATM) on-line or network services and automatic credit card services. All these services through the use of advanced information technological devices give the customers easy access to their money. Customers also have the opportunity of withdrawing or depositing money into their units anywhere in the world.
Moreover, the study will be very useful to the banking sector and the Nigerian economy in general. This is because banks provide the bulk of the money inform of loan for medium and long term investment in any capitalist economy. Since it has been provided that with the introduction of information and computerization of banking operation as well as prudent management or resources will result to the following.
1 Enhance profitability
2 Improve customer’s satisfaction
3 Increase in customer’s deposit
4 And rapid development and growth of the banking sector
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses are formulated for the purpose of this research.
H01 There is no significant effect on computerization on commercial bank high performance.
H02: There is no association in achieving the objectives of electronic banking and irregular electric power supply and telecommunication services by government in Nigeria.
H03 There is no possible solution to the problems that emanate from electronic banking that will enhance commercial bank.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In view of the technicalities involves, it would be unrealistic to assume that all necessary facts have been gathered in the process of the study. Information gathered is limited to those assesses and made available by the respondents and also gathered from the end users.
In other words, the under listed constraints under this study is limited to first bank of Nigeria plc and zenith bank plc in delta / Ozoro due to
a Financial Constraints
b Time constraints
c Relevant research materials constraints which have greatly challenged in writing of this project.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is to evaluate the effect of computerization in the banking sector. The scope of the study covers all commercial banks in Nigeria. The researcher chooses three banks as a study due to constraints. These banks are first bank of Nigeria plc, union bank of Nigeria plc, zenith international bank plc. This research work is to know if actually computerization has an impact in the banking system and identify them.
The scope equally covers both primary and secondary data for research analysis where reliable conclusions can be drawn from the type of secondary data used is external data and the sources include textbooks, internet, newspapers and magazines while the type of primary data is structured or close / mall type of questionnaire. The location banks of the researcher work are all in Ozoro and warri of delta state.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
For clarity and guide to understanding the study the following words are used as defined below:
Computer: This is an electronic device that is capable of accepting data as input, process the data and finally provide information as output. It also store and analyze information fed into it, for calculating or controlling in machine automatically.
Computerization: By this we means, all machines and electrical appliance which aids achievement of the banking operation.
Bank: Bank is a financial intermediary that performs one or more of the following functions, safeguards and transfer, lend and facilitate lending, guarantee credit computer services. This work is done by the use of electronic machine etc.
Banking Sector: This refer to a place where business activities of bank carried out services.
Electronic Banking: This is a fully automatic services such that transaction are concluded on a jiffy.
Technology: This is an appliance of science for practical use.
Computer Network: This is the work done by electronic machines etc
Program: Program is the set of instruction that direct and control the operations of the computer hardware.
Automation: This is any contrivable integrated, operation on related equipment to regulate co-operation on related equipment to regulate coordinate the quantity and quality and quantity of what is produced.