MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF NTAMIRI ALONG UMUAGWO AXIS OF THE STREAM

  • Chapters:6
  • Pages:60
  • Methodology:Scientific Method
  • Reference:YES
  • Format:Microsoft Word
(Bio-Chemistry)
MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF NTAMIRI ALONG UMUAGWO AXIS OF THE STREAM
ABSTRACT

Ntamiri River, Along Umuagwo axis were studied over a period of  twelve months to determine the effects of detergent effluent discharges on the aspect of water quality of the river. Water samples from Points A, B and C were screened for microbiological analysis. The results revealed that the level of pollution varied depending on season and that the water quality was acceptable at the upstream (Point A) but became impaired at Points B and C, indicating significant pollution from detergent effluent discharges. The analysis of the microbiological characteristics of water samples from the three points revealed high microbial and faecal contamination with microbial load in the order of 105 and MPN of ≤ 1800. The detergent effluents discharged into Points B and C were found to support the growth of micro organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter species that are pathogenic in nature with higher loads. The results showed that water samples from the river contained toxic substances with higher microbial loads. The detrimental effects of the discharge effluent on the aspect of water quality of Ntamiri River River were discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENT 
1.0    CHAPTER ONE
 Introduction       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
1.1    Aims / objectives of the study       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
1.2    Statement of problems -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
1.3    Hypothesis         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
1.4    Scope of limitation               -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -              
CHAPTER TWO
2.0    Literature review         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
2.1    The major group of biological Pollutions of water              -       -       -      
2.2    Source of water supply -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
2.3    Source of water pollution              -       -       -       -       -       -       -      
2.4    Treatment of water sample          
International standard for drinking water -       -       -       -       -       -      
Diseases from water    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -                              
CHAPTER THREE
3.0    Materials & methods
3.0    Materials                                           
3.1    Media preparation                              
3.2    Collection of samples                          
3.3    Collection of samples                          
3.4    Methods of water analysis                    
3.5    Determination of PH                            
Determination of bacteria of the coliform                                       
Culture techniques                              
Plate count technique                          
Presumption coliform (multiple tube fermebtation            
3.5.4 Confirmatory test                               
3.5.5 Completed test                                   
3.5.6 Test for indole                                    
3.5.7 Methyl red test                                   
3.5.8 Sugar test                                         
3.5.9 Oxidase test                                              
3.5.10 Catakase test                                   
3.5.11 The slide cougulase test                     
3.5.12 Gram stain techniques                       
3.5.13 Detection of faecal stredtococci  
3.5.14 Detection of escherichi coli test   
3.5.15 Organism suspected after gram staining                                       
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS                   
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion
CHAPTER SIX
6.1    Conclusion
6.2    Recommendation
References
CHAPTER ONE
1.0    INTRODUCTION
Water is a liquid mineral. It consists of two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. Water is a tasteless, odourless and colourless mobile liquid except in large volume where it appears blue.  It has a melting point of OoC (320f) and a boiling point of 1000C (2120f).  Water is a basic necessity of life; in the absence higher animals survive only but a few hours or days.  It has several uses such as washing cooking, food processing, swimming, and among others. Out  of   these  uses, drinking  of  water  seems  to  be  the  most   sensitive  as  it  could  have  a  direct   deleterious  impact  on  health  of  human  beings.
Therefore, drinking water should be potable free diseases, or toxic substance (Beren 1991). Water is portable when it is colourless.  Odourless, or tasteless and also free from poisonous, corroding, staining substances as well as disease casuiong oirganisms (Cruich 1972).  The problem of providing safe and adequate water is as old as life on earth.  Water can be made unifit or unsafe for drinking it contamination occurs either by nature or activities of human beings.    
Perhaps the greatest danger associated with drinking water is contamination by human  excrement (Forest 1979).  In most cases, the pollution/contamination is hardly severe and is not particularly detrimental to health.
Thus a few substances and microbes that are health hazard do occur in water, and can cause illness or even death.  From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water supply ranges from ultrasmall virus to the microscopic bacteria and relatively large cysts entemoeba instolytica.  These organisms cense infections of intestinal track, when consumed censing amebic dysentery, and Gardia lamblia is a protozoa responsible for Giadiasis.  Defective plumbing for example was the cause of out break during the world fair in Chicago 1933 (Garelick 1987) water borne disease cause acute diarrhea, often last 2-3 months.  The most common water borne disease can be by bacteria includes typhoid fever, paratyphoid.  Asiatic cholera and bacteria dysentery.
Other diseases that may be transmitted by water include brucellosis, shige /losis, these diseases are consuming.  Untreated water (Hetolett 1921) various countries of the world and the world Health organization (WHO) has set up standards for water quality against which the level of pollution can be assessed.  The world Health organization (WHO) National Agency for food and Drug Administration control (NAFDAC), standard for potable water include the following, that in 100ml of water coliform bacteria should be absent, total plate count of bacteria growth should be 100 CFU/ML of water.  Hence the sanitary Quality of water should not be over looked since contaminated water can cause health hazards when consumed.
According to guideline for drinking water quality of WHO (1998)
TABLE 1
WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER
PH
     COLOUR
     Dissolved solids
     Total Hardness
     Calcium
     Iron
     Chloride
     Nitrate
     Coliform
 5.0 – 9.0
     15 Hazen unit
     500 mg/l
     500 mg/l
     75 mg/l
     0.3 mg/l
     200 mg/l
     45 mg/l
     10 colonies
 1.1    AIMS / OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
        The objective of this project is to make Microbiological study of Ntamiri Rivers along Umuagwo axis.
To identify contamination microbial advice on measures to control pollution of water bodies etc.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The treated water produced by Ntamiri Rivers could be contaminated by defective plumbing which cause the rush of water out of the pipe forming pull mixed with sewage matters.  The pull eventually sucks back through the burst pipe into the pipe line being distributed to various locations and collected as drinking water.
1.3    HYPOTHESIS
H.O:  there is difference in the microbial load of water from Ntamiri River at point of production against the load as the point of supply and consumption.
HI:    There is a statistical difference between the microbial load of water from the Ntamiri Rivers as the production point against the load as supply and consumption point.
1.4    SCOPE OF LIMITATION
The  project is set to identify only microbial pollutants  the method of microbial analysis is limited to the techniques and materials available in our laboratory as against high tech equipment which may be found else where.

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Project Details

Department Bio-Chemistry
Project ID BCH0026
Price ₦3,000 ($9)
Chapters 6 Chapters
No of Pages 60 Pages
Methodology Scientific Method
Reference YES
Format Microsoft Word

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    Project Details

    Department Bio-Chemistry
    Project ID BCH0026
    Price ₦3,000 ($9)
    Chapters 6 Chapters
    No of Pages 60 Pages
    Methodology Scientific Method
    Reference YES
    Format Microsoft Word

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