MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF NTAMIRI ALONG UMUAGWO AXIS OF THE STREAM ABSTRACT Ntamiri River, Along Umuagwo axis were studied over a period of twelve months to determine the effects of detergent effluent discharges on the aspect of water quality of the river. Water samples from Points A, B and C were screened for microbiological analysis. The results revealed that the level of pollution varied depending on season and that the water quality was acceptable at the upstream (Point A) but became impaired at Points B and C, indicating significant pollution from detergent effluent discharges. The analysis of the microbiological characteristics of water samples from the three points revealed high microbial and faecal contamination with microbial load in the order of 105 and MPN of ≤ 1800. The detergent effluents discharged into Points B and C were found to support the growth of micro organisms such as Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter species that are pathogenic in nature with higher loads. The results showed that water samples from the river contained toxic substances with higher microbial loads. The detrimental effects of the discharge effluent on the aspect of water quality of Ntamiri River River were discussed. TABLE OF CONTENT 1.0 CHAPTER ONE Introduction - - - - - - - - - - 1.1 Aims / objectives of the study - - - - - - - 1.2 Statement of problems - - - - - - - - 1.3 Hypothesis - - - - - - - - - 1.4 Scope of limitation - - - - - - - - CHAPTER TWO 2.0 Literature review - - - - - - - - 2.1 The major group of biological Pollutions of water - - - 2.2 Source of water supply - - - - - - - - 2.3 Source of water pollution - - - - - - - 2.4 Treatment of water sample International standard for drinking water - - - - - - Diseases from water - - - - - - - - - CHAPTER THREE 3.0 Materials & methods 3.0 Materials 3.1 Media preparation 3.2 Collection of samples 3.3 Collection of samples 3.4 Methods of water analysis 3.5 Determination of PH Determination of bacteria of the coliform Culture techniques Plate count technique Presumption coliform (multiple tube fermebtation 3.5.4 Confirmatory test 3.5.5 Completed test 3.5.6 Test for indole 3.5.7 Methyl red test 3.5.8 Sugar test 3.5.9 Oxidase test 3.5.10 Catakase test 3.5.11 The slide cougulase test 3.5.12 Gram stain techniques 3.5.13 Detection of faecal stredtococci 3.5.14 Detection of escherichi coli test 3.5.15 Organism suspected after gram staining CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS CHAPTER FIVE Discussion CHAPTER SIX 6.1 Conclusion 6.2 Recommendation References CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION Water is a liquid mineral. It consists of two atoms of hydrogen combined with one atom of oxygen. Water is a tasteless, odourless and colourless mobile liquid except in large volume where it appears blue. It has a melting point of OoC (320f) and a boiling point of 1000C (2120f). Water is a basic necessity of life; in the absence higher animals survive only but a few hours or days. It has several uses such as washing cooking, food processing, swimming, and among others. Out of these uses, drinking of water seems to be the most sensitive as it could have a direct deleterious impact on health of human beings. Therefore, drinking water should be potable free diseases, or toxic substance (Beren 1991). Water is portable when it is colourless. Odourless, or tasteless and also free from poisonous, corroding, staining substances as well as disease casuiong oirganisms (Cruich 1972). The problem of providing safe and adequate water is as old as life on earth. Water can be made unifit or unsafe for drinking it contamination occurs either by nature or activities of human beings. Perhaps the greatest danger associated with drinking water is contamination by human excrement (Forest 1979). In most cases, the pollution/contamination is hardly severe and is not particularly detrimental to health. Thus a few substances and microbes that are health hazard do occur in water, and can cause illness or even death. From microbiological point of view, the pathogens most frequently transmitted through water supply ranges from ultrasmall virus to the microscopic bacteria and relatively large cysts entemoeba instolytica. These organisms cense infections of intestinal track, when consumed censing amebic dysentery, and Gardia lamblia is a protozoa responsible for Giadiasis. Defective plumbing for example was the cause of out break during the world fair in Chicago 1933 (Garelick 1987) water borne disease cause acute diarrhea, often last 2-3 months. The most common water borne disease can be by bacteria includes typhoid fever, paratyphoid. Asiatic cholera and bacteria dysentery. Other diseases that may be transmitted by water include brucellosis, shige /losis, these diseases are consuming. Untreated water (Hetolett 1921) various countries of the world and the world Health organization (WHO) has set up standards for water quality against which the level of pollution can be assessed. The world Health organization (WHO) National Agency for food and Drug Administration control (NAFDAC), standard for potable water include the following, that in 100ml of water coliform bacteria should be absent, total plate count of bacteria growth should be 100 CFU/ML of water. Hence the sanitary Quality of water should not be over looked since contaminated water can cause health hazards when consumed. According to guideline for drinking water quality of WHO (1998) TABLE 1 WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER PH COLOUR Dissolved solids Total Hardness Calcium Iron Chloride Nitrate Coliform 5.0 – 9.0 15 Hazen unit 500 mg/l 500 mg/l 75 mg/l 0.3 mg/l 200 mg/l 45 mg/l 10 colonies 1.1 AIMS / OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objective of this project is to make Microbiological study of Ntamiri Rivers along Umuagwo axis. To identify contamination microbial advice on measures to control pollution of water bodies etc. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS The treated water produced by Ntamiri Rivers could be contaminated by defective plumbing which cause the rush of water out of the pipe forming pull mixed with sewage matters. The pull eventually sucks back through the burst pipe into the pipe line being distributed to various locations and collected as drinking water. 1.3 HYPOTHESIS H.O: there is difference in the microbial load of water from Ntamiri River at point of production against the load as the point of supply and consumption. HI: There is a statistical difference between the microbial load of water from the Ntamiri Rivers as the production point against the load as supply and consumption point. 1.4 SCOPE OF LIMITATION The project is set to identify only microbial pollutants the method of microbial analysis is limited to the techniques and materials available in our laboratory as against high tech equipment which may be found else where.
A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF FRUSTRATION ON NIGERIAN SECRETARIES (A CASE STUDY OF COAL CORPORATION, ENUGU) ABSTRACT This research project tends to scrutinize the effect of frustration on Nigerian Secretaries. This is because Nigerian Coal Corporation Enugu faces some problems like denial of qualified... Continue Reading
A STUDY OF THE PRODUCT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN THE BREWERY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF CONSOLIDATEN BERWERIES PLC) ABSTRACT This project which is a modest attempt to study the distribution system in the brewery industry taking consolidated breweries plc Awomama, brewery of “33” export large beer... Continue Reading
A CRITICAL STUDY ON THE INDUSTRIAL CONFLICTS IN AN ORGANISATION” (A CASE STUDY OF GUINESS (NIG.) PLC IKEJA LAGOS) PREFACE Companies’ revenue and profit have been adversely affected by the ever-increasing incidence of industrial conflicts between workers and management in recent times. Each time... Continue Reading
A STUDY OF IMPACT AND IMPLICATION OF RESTRUCTURING THE NIGERIA PENSION SCHEME (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE) ABSTRACT The researcher aim of writing this project was achieved by her objectives i.e. the study of impact and implication of restructuring the Nigerian Pension Scheme, (A case study of... Continue Reading
A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS PATRONAGE (A CASE STUDY OF CUMSUMERS IN OWERRI MUNICIPLE COUNCIL) CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Marketing is the management process aimed at identifying, anticipating, analysis and satisfying human needs and wants... Continue Reading
THE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF THE ORGNS IN THE DEVELOPEMTN OF CROP IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF THE COOPERATIVE FEDERATION OF ANAMBRA STATE) ABTRACTS Over the years, there has been a high rate of business failure in both private and public sector . analysis and the review of the problem has shown that... Continue Reading
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SECRETARIAL PROFESSION IN NIGERIA YESTERDAY AND TODAY (A CASE STUDY OF IBETO GROUP OF COMPANIES NNEWI) ABSTRACT This study aimed at comparing secretarial profession of yesterday and today. The problem observed in the study was that there is need to examine the productivity an... Continue Reading