MOTIVATION AND PRODUCTIVITY IN PUBLIC ENTERPRISES A CASE STUDY OF DELTA STATE WATER CORPORATION
This is public cutlery on the ineffectiveness characteristics of the public sector. The question here is what actually is responsible for the general low performance of workers in the public sector?. The gap between poor motivation and low productivity in state-owned – corporation has to be filled. The environment in which its average worker performs his job seen to be unfavorable to his or her maximum contribution to the goals and objective of the organization for these reasons, therefore this research work is aim at identifying roles motivation is playing in enhancing the productivity of Delta State Water Corporation and other state enterprise. Recommendations were also forwarded based on the scientific approach of data collection. Some of these recommendations include that the tool of motivation should be made by the management to identify factors that are dearest to the heart of the workers and use them mostly. Secondly, strict supervisor or adherence to rules does not always provide positive results.
1.1 General Background – – – – – – –
1.2 Statement of problem – – – – – –
1.3 Purpose of the study – – – – – –
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – –
1.5 Significance of the study – – – – – –
1.6 Limitation of the study – – – – – –
1.7 Definition of terms/ concept – – – – –
2.1 Review of literature – – – – – – –
2.2 Theoretical framework – – – – – –
3.1 Area of study – – – – – – – –
3.2 Population of study – – – – – – –
3.3 Sample size – – – – – – – –
3.4 Sampling method/ Techniques – – – – –
3.5 Data collection Technique/ Instruments – – –
3.6 Validity and Reliability on its instruments – –
3.7 Administration of the instruments – – – –
3.8 Method of Data analysis – – – – – –
4.1 Analysis of Data Collection – – – – –
4.2 Principle finding – – – – – – –
5.1 Interpretation – – – – – – – –
5.2 Summary – – – – – – – – –
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – –
5.4 Suggestion for further Research – – – –
Reference – – – – – – – – –
Questionnaire – – – – – – – –
In the traditional African economy the necessity to study the motivation of workers would not have existed. This is because , in the traditional set up , a family group consisted a self-sustaining unit appropriating any surplus for their own use. The workers owned the means of production as well as the products of their labour.
But in the modern industrial capitalist economy, a worker trades his labour power and skill and gets as reward only an infinitesimal bit of the huge profit derived from his labour. He is isolated for making decisions as to the products of his labour are utilized or disposed of.
How them does the workers keep going on knowing full well, that all his efforts are geared towards increasing the profit of his capitalist employer?. This bring up the issue of motivation. As pointed out by Hicks (1972), people do not work in organizations for the sake of work itself but rather with the ultimate hope that they will achieve their individual objectives by hoping their organizations accomplish their objectives; in this sense , the degree of commitment of members to actively participate and contribute through collective efforts is based on their perception that the organization would enhance their aspirations. Expectations of workers and what is obtainable in the work-place, made mark, (1884), to assets that the gap between the expectations of workers and the realities of work results to deprivation and alienation.
The state is the greatest employers of labour like the private sector. The choice of the state owned establish like the Delta STATE WATER Corporation is founded on the reason stated above, that is to say the state is one of the highest employer of labour.
State and public enterprises are set up or established the sole aim of the maki9ng profits. In other word a, they are non-profit making organization, but established to provide services that would not have benne taken adequate care of the private establishment is to make profit, relate d to the profit that is operation make so that it contains an incentive element depending on profit. It may not be outrageous to say that any motivational measure taken by these enterprise may not necessary arise from a genuine desire to improve the working conditions and quality of services but rather would be predicated on the one-sided wished to increase the profits of the capitalist employers.
Motivation is state-owned corporations therefore is a function which management performs to stimulate employers, effective and efficient contribution to the achievement or organizational goals and quality production.
1.2 Statement of Problem
James (2014) cited three warning signs of a demotivated workforce these include poor workplace atmosphere, slipping job standards and decreased productivity. He further stated that if any of these factors is observed to be trending downwards then there is a great chance that the organization is dealing with a demotivated workforce. Most businesses and organizations especially Public Enterprises have failed to recognize the importance of motivation as a concept be it intrinsic such as employee well-being, relationship with co-workers, relationship with managers, organizational policies etc. or extrinsic such as training and career development, good working conditions, compensation, promotion amongst other factors that enhance or improve employee performance as well as organizational productivity levels.
This in turn has continued to represent major managerial concerns for decades as employee productivity levels has relatively declined which has been acknowledged as a subject of growing concern in the aspect of business and management research (Akerele, 2011). Although a lot of factors may also be responsible or even cause a decline in productivity such as poor strategic and structural changes in decisions and executions, lack of infrastructure, leadership styles and organizational culture amongst others. Contemporary investigations that connects the concept of workforce motivation and productivity has laid an emphasis on employee perspective, needs and expectations as factors affecting their performance and productivity levels respectively. As such investigating those factors of importance to employees in the discharge of their duties at work has taken a new dimension.
Motivation through factors such as employee wellbeing, adequate compensation, promotion, good relationships with co-workers and relationships with managers can enhance an employee’s level of effectiveness and efficiency in the workplace. This is because good relationships with co-workers promote unity and gives the employee a sense of belonging and acceptance which in turn boosts employee performance and productivity levels. Employees who enjoy such relationships both within and outside the work environment tend to be more effective and efficient as such very productive in discharging their duties. Therefore organizations should promote harmony amongst employees by organizing social functions in a bid to bring employees together (Jibowo, 2017).
Therefore an organization’s best strategy is to provide suitable work environs that allow their workforce to meet or exceed expectations as well as offer a range of motivators to improve enthusiasm, performance and productivity levels
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this study is to acquire a deeper comprehension of motivation and productivity in public enterprises (a case of Delta State Water Corporation).
The study specifically:
Determine the effect of motivation on the level of effectiveness of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation.
Determine the effect of employee relationship with managers on the level of efficiency of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation.
Examine the effect of compensation on the level of effectiveness of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation.
Examine the effect of productivity on career development of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation.
1.4 Research Questions
What is the effect of motivation on the level of effectiveness of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation?
What is the effect of employee relationship with managers on the level of efficiency of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation.
What is the effect of compensation on the level of effectiveness of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation?
What is the effect of productivity on career development of the workers in Delta State Water Corporation?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses have been formulated for testing:
H0 1: There is no significant relationship between motivation and work productivity for public enterprises.
H0 2: Monetary incentives and rewards exert a stronger influence on workers than any other form of motivational incentives.
1.6 Significance of the Study
For this study not to be an effort in futility, it has to be useful to a number of people and institutions among which are;
Organizations: The aim of this study is that the outcomes, results or findings should be beneficial to business owners, managers and organizations especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. This is to enable them understand the concept of motivation and its effect on productivity. It also gives an insight to managers and business owners on the importance of knowing their employees and ensuring adequate motivation in their organizations.
Research Institutions: This study is also relevant to research bodies and institutions in the nation as a whole because findings would also be relevant to students and users of information in conducting further research in areas similar to this study.
Government Agencies: This research is also of paramount importance because it would aid government agencies in making and implementing policies that would enhance the stability, growth and development of businesses throughout the region in matters concerning motivation and productivity by seeking ways ensure that employees are adequately motivated in their various organizations thereby increasing overall productivity and performance levels.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The relationship between the public enterprises and its employees is governed by what motivates them to work and the fulfillments they derive from it. The manager needs to understand how to elicit the cooperation of staff and direct their performance to achieving the goals and objectives of the organization. This study is delimited to Delta State Water Corporation. The work force to be covered within the context of the project will include contract, permanent and management staff. This study is further delimited in terms of the organizational sub-sets of familiarity, concern and driving force as well as approach to work.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a postgraduate (student) and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in Delta State the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.
1.9 Operationalization of Research Variables
This study consists of two variables, employee motivation and organizational productivity, being the independent and dependent variables respectively. The relationship between the two variables can be mathematically represented as follows:
Where: Y= dependent variable = Organizational Productivity f= Function
X = Independent variable = Employee Motivation (Intrinsic and Extrinsic)
X= Employee Motivation
X1= Employee Well-being
X2= Employee Relationship with Co-workers
X3= Employee Relationship with Managers
X4= Training and Career Development
X6= Work Environment
Y= Organizational Productivity
1.10 Schematic Model of the Study
Source: Adopted from Estes & Polnick (2012)
Figure 1: Schematic Model of the Study
The above diagram represents the schematic model of the study illustrating both the independent and dependent variables used in the study; where H represents the various hypotheses tested in the course of this study.
1.11 Definition of Terms
Motivation: refers to what stimulates and guides human behaviors and how these behaviors are sustained to attain a specific goal.
Employees: Employees are people who are hired working under contract in an organization, they are referred to as the workforce of an organization.
Productivity: A summary measure of the quantity and quality of work performance, with resource deployment taken into account. It can be measured at individual, group or organizational levels.
Employee Productivity: is the rate at which employees effectively and efficiently discharge their duties.
Organizational Productivity: A measure of how efficiently and effectively managers use resources to achieve organizational goals.
Effectiveness: refers to a measure of how well workers productivity levels meet set goals and objectives of the organization.
Employee Effectiveness: is a qualitative characteristic that indicates the extent to which job related issues are addressed and the magnitude at which predetermined goals and objectives are achieved by an employee.
Efficiency: can be derived from the relationship between inputs and outputs, and refers principally to the degree at which outputs are realized while minimizing costs associated with production.
Employee Efficiency: refers to the ability of an employee to do what is actually produced or performed with the same consumption of resources
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