FACTOR INFLUENCING SEXUAL HARRASSMENT AMONG STUDENTS IN EMMANUELALAYANDECOLLEGE OF EDUCATION, OYO
Thisstudy investigated the factors influencing sexual harassment among students inEmmanuelAlayandeCollege of Education Oyo, OyoState. Research question were formulated from the aims and objective of the study in which one hundred and fifty (150) questionnaire were distributed, and five schools in the college: School of Sciences, Arts and social sciences, vocational and technical education, education and school of languages, thirty (30) students were randomly selected from each school, the data based on the findings. It was finally suggested that, the absence of policy guidelines to define what constitutes sexual harassment could in turn have encouraged the perpetration of the act in the institutions studied. Institutes higher education without explicit policies against sexual harassment are less likely to have to stress-free environment that will promote positive employee and students attitude. Secondly, there is a need for student and their trainers to be educated on what constitutes sexual harassment. Strongly disciplinary measures, including dismissal must be taken to the lecturers who harass female students and legislation which protect female students from sexual harassment must be introduced as there seems to be unwillingness in the part of society to recognize the problem.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
2.1 Theoretical Background on Sexual Harassment
2.2 Theories of Adolescence
2.3 Empirical Review of Literature on Sexual
2.4 Causes of Sexual Harassment
2.5 Effects of Sexual Harassment on the Academic
Performanceof Higher Institution Students in Schools
3.0 Research Method
3.2 Population of the Study
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.4 Research Instrument
3.5 Validity of the Research Instrument
3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument
3.7 Administration of Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
Analysis of Data and Results
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.4 Suggestion for further studies
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sexual harassment is bulling or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favours. In most modern legal contexts, sexual harassment is illegal. (Akinboye, 2009).
As defined by the Adubuola, (1988) "It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person sex Harassment can include "sexual harassment" or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favours, and other verbal or physical harassment of a sexual nature.
The legal definition of sexual harassment differs by Jurisdiction. Sexual harassment is subject to a directive in the European Union. (Omideyi, 1988).
Where laws surrounding sexual harassment exist, they generally do not prohibit simple teasing offhand comments, or mirror isolated incidents. In the workplace harassment may be considered illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it create a hostile or offensive work environment or when it result in an verse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted, or when the victim decides to quit job). (Ojeme, 1994).
The legal and social understanding of sexual harassment, however, varies by nature.
In the context of US employment, the harasser can be the victim's supervisor, a supervisor in another area, Harjit, (2003)a co-worker or someone who is not an employee of employer, such as a client or customer and harassers or victims can be either male or female.
The concept of sexual harassment, in its modern understanding, is a relatively new one, dating from 1970's onward; although other related concepts have existed prior to this in many cultures.
The term sexual harassment was used in 1973 in "Saturn's Rings" a report authored by Mary Rowe to the then president and chancellor of about various forms of gender issues. (Coffey, 2008)
Rowe has stated that she believes she was not the first to use the term, since sexual harassment was being discussed in women's groups in Massachusetts in the early 1970's, but that MIT may have been the first or one of the first large organizations to discuss the topic (in the MIT Academic Council) and to develop relevant policies and procedures. MIT at the time also recognized the injuries caused by racial harassment and the harassment of women of color which may be both racial and sexual (Kohlbery, 2001)
The president of MIT also stated that harassment (and favoritism) are antithetical to the mission of a university as well as intolerable for individuals.
In Nigeria, over the years, secondary education has regarded as the minimum educational qualification required for entering into higher citadel of learning or learning a trade, Awosika, (2002), regards secondary education as and still regarded by a greater percentage of Nigerian as necessary precondition for social mobility.
In the same vein, Nwankwo, (2000), says secondary education is the gateway to higher social status, position and career success.
Therefore, it is not amazing that the Ladeni, (2004) revised edition adopted education as an instrument per excellence for effective national development, it also proposed the objectives of education at all levels.
The objectives of secondary education as stated in the national policy on education in specific terms should:
i. Provide an increasing number of primary school pupils with the opportunity for education of higher quality, irrespective of sex or social, religious and ethnic background.
ii. Diversity its curriculum to cater for the differences in talents opportunities and roles possessed by or open to higher institution students;
iii. Equip higher institution student to love effectively in our modern age of science and technology;
iv. Develop and protect Nigerian culture, art and language as well as the world cultural heritage.
v. Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feeling of others, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour and appreciate those values specific under our broad national aims and level as good citizens;
vi. Foster Nigerian unity with an emphasis on the communities that unite us in our diversity, and;
vii. Inspire it higher institution student with a desire for achievement and self-improvement both at school and in later life Osuala, (1993).
Those objective(s) are worthwhile, however the achievement depend on their implementation Adarelegbe, (2001), while expressing his view on this argues that it is the task of the school to calculate moral and ethical values in learner's along with their learning experiences.
The said task of inculcating moral values which was placed before the school is in line with what Adesina, (2002), described as production of boys and girls who stressed the need to wipe away moral decadence at all levels of education.
The chief role of school is to bring higher institution students up morally to become acceptable adult in the society, moreover, the school is required to provide higher institution students with adequate knowledge for the preparation towards entering into a profession.
Therefore, the educational, social and psychological roles of the school in the loves of the higher institution students are also paramount.
However, drawing its members from diverse homes, the school serves as a meeting place for higher institution students of different socio-economic backgrounds to display worthwhile and vice-versa behaviours. Coffey, (2002).
In the developing country like Nigeria, people tend to look at sexual harassment as a disease that has eaten deep the fabrics of the society, due to the gross misconduct of the sexual harassments.
It's incessant increase nowadays made it look like no effort has been made to diagnose the causes and effects of sexual harassment on schools, not that schools deliberately plan to breed delinquents pupils, but the complexity of the society (Elizabeth, 1992).
According to sexual harassment law (1998), sexual harassment is a person who is under the age of eighteen years, it must be noted that for a sexual harassment to be called a delinquent, his or her conduct must be so deviant and fall so short of the expectation of the society (Adesina, 1999).
Hopkins (2000) defines a sexual harassment as a boy or a girl aged from twelve and eighteen years who fails or neglects to do what duty or laws required.
In encyclopedia of the new universal library (2001); sexual harassment is defined as tendency of individual or group to break the law or moral code of a society.
Pizza, (2002) said that, it represents a form of adolescent adaptive behaviour arising out of a complex of social-economic psychologic and emotional disturbances.
Harjit, (1998) emphasis that harassment literally means indulging in truancy, destruction of properties, disobedience, assault, aggressiveness, fighting to mention but few.
Meanwhile, Akinboye, (2000) stated that "poor home condition might be responsible for harassment when we heard any establishment of behaviour that can militate against the achievement of set objective organization".
Therefore, this is the study of the factors influencing sexual harassment among students in Emmanuel Alayande College of Education with a view of recommending useful suggestions towards the possible ways of controlling and eradicating this menace in our society.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been discovered that these exist prevalence of the sexual harassment in the world today and it seems the bulk of this is in higher institution, through many categorized the prevalence and the causes of the sexual harassment among the society as a result of the youthful exorbitant power testing.
Also these have not been critical effort to examine the causes and prevention of the sexual harassment among higher institution student, especially in our country (Nigeria).
Many researchers refused to understand that youths are the ones that characterized the large population of the society, also there are many ideas of the situation that prompted me to carry out this particular study, because of so many report of sexual harassment among or outside the higher institution in our country and how people that has been harassed whether through hugging, kissing, hanging around a poem, touching an employee's cloth, hair, body or unwanted letters, telephones calls etc. feels.
All this aforementioned among all are what makes the researcher to carry out this study.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study are:
i. The main purpose of the study is be examine the factors influence sexual Harassment
ii. To determine the nature and trend of sexual Harassment among students of Emmanuel Alayande College of Education
iii. To ascertain the causes of sexual Harassment as perceived by students in Higher Education Institution
iv. To examine the psychological consequences of sexual Harassment on the victims
v. To recommend possible institutional response to control occurrence of sexual Harassment among students at Emmanuel Alayande Colleges of Education
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are generated to guide the study;
i. What are the causes sexual harassment?
ii. What are the factors influencing sexual harassment among the students in Emmanuel Alayande College of Education?
iii. What are the effects of sexual harassment among the students in Emmanuel Alayande College of Education?
iv What are the ways to curb sexual harassment among students in Emmanuel Alayande College of Education?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study cannot be over emphasized in the sense that, it will provide information on sexual Harassment findings. On this study will contribute immensely to enlightening in the adolescents who contributes majority population of the college and pupils at large to acquire positive attitude towards sexual Harassment students as the main anchor of this research will be made to see the negative effect of sexual Harassment and for the society at large, to see the problems of premature death of our promising young girls, emanating from abortion of unwanted pregnancies will minimized.
Based on this research works, student reader would also gain so much based on the need to utilize the professional knowledge they have acquired while providing vocational, educational and socio-personal counseling to students. The students will also offer solutions to sexual Harassment and problems of premarital sex. The parents, guardians, teachers, social workers, educational administrations and the future researchers who will use the project as a reference point for various undertakings. It will shed more light on factor responsible for who might wish to carry out research in this area.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is delimitated to students of Emmanuel Alyande College of Education, the write intends to highlight possible factor responsible for sexual Harassment among students of Emmanuel Alayande College of Education and general survey of effects of sexual Harassment on them.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
SEXUAL HARASSMENT: Illegal forceful of opposite into sex relationship.
PEER GROUP: playmate or age mate, age group that play together.
TERTIARY: Next level of education after secondary school level.
YOUTHFUL: means having the qualities that are typical of young people.
TRAUMA: Severe emotional shock and pain caused by an extremely upsetting experiencing
SEXUAL: Sex of reproduction occurring by fusion of male and female cell.
SEX: Either of the two main groups "male and female into which living things are placed according to their reproductive functions.
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