ATTITUDE OF MEN TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING IN OGBOMOSO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
This research examined the attitude of men towards family planning. The data was collected by the researcher through the administration of two hundred (200) questionnaires with men from different religion and social background. This examined the awareness, attitude and various factors militating against the effectiveness of family planning. The result showed that majority of men in Ogbomosho North Local Government are aware of the existence of family planning for men, but they are not practicing it. Some of the factors militating against the effectiveness of family planning identified are: religion efforts, cost of practice, and lack of adequate knowledge of applying the various methods of family planning available for men. This study made some recommendations such as; Increasing the level of awareness of family planning for men through organization of seminars and orientation. Introduction of sex education into the school curriculum at all level of education; Organization of reproductive health programme; There should be provision of subsidy on any methods chosen by men; Counseling unit of the government hospitals should rise to the challenge by creating awareness of the importance of family planning to men.
One of the most serious problems that developing countries still have to solve is their rapid and uncontrollable increase in population, because while the world continues to experience a geometric increase rate in population growth. Thus there is need for government, non-governmental bodies and individuals to rise and proffer favourable solutions to this rapid and uncontrollable increase in population. It is documented that men’s general knowledge and attitude concerning the ideal family size, gender preference for children idea spacing between child births and contraceptive method use greatly influence women’s preference and opinions. However, fertility and family planning research and programmes have ignored men’s role in the past focusing more on women’s behaviour, and services are traditionally presented within the context of material and child health.
Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPDS) and the UN 1995 world conference on women’s interest in men’s involvement in reproductive health has increased. In September, 2014 a special session to the General Assembly endorsed the findings of the 20 years review and government committed to intensified efforts to address gaps and emerging challenges. The (ICPD) programmes of action, adopted in 1994 by 179 members states, lays out a far-sighted plan for advancing human well-being that places the human rights of individuals, rather than numerical population target at the centre of the global development agenda.
It calls attention to the ways in which women and youth especially in their sexual and reproductive health can impact environmental sustainability and population dynamics. The Cairo programme of action that individual dignity and human rights are the foundation of a resilient sustainable future was ground breaking in 1994, but has been validated by a series of in-depth reviews. There has also been a shift in objectives of male participation and concerns, form increasing contraceptive use and achieving demographic goals to achieve gender equality and fulfilling various reproductive responsibilities. The large number of conference, research projects and debates on this subject bear testimony to the importance of this issue, both from the programmatic point of view and as a process for bringing about a gender balance in men’s and women’s reproductive rights and responsibilities.
In Nigeria, the high rate of population growth has been driven by higher fertility rates, which have fallen much less rapidly than the crude death rate. According to Ogundele (2002) stated that rapid increase in the world population could have been a thing of great joy but unfortunately and ironically too, the current estimate by the end of the century had all continued to pose serious threat to any individual and almost all nations of the world. It is estimated that in 1999 the world’s population would hit six (6) billion and seven (7) billion by the year 2010.He stressed further that family planning was recognized as an essential component of primary health care for the world health assembly in Alma Ata in 2005 which made a commitment to health for all by the year 2000.
Researchers have suggested various reasons to explain why, despite the high fertility rate, acceptance and utilization of modern family planning methods remains low.
Factors that brings about this includes:
Poor accessibility of services;
The low status of women;
The high illiteracy rate among female population;
The patriarchal nature of the society; and
A gender lack of male involvement in family planning
The family unit in Nigeria is essentially patriarchal and patrimonial; with all the important decisions taken by the male head while the woman’s fundamental social role is to bear and raise children and engage in productive tasks within the household. Wives are usually, socially and economically dependent on their husbands. A study of reproductive motivation conducted in four Nigeria cities and large semi-urban settlement by the developmental agencies revealed that men wanted more children than women did, as children were believed to give status to men, often it was the men who decide whether to have another child. Oni and Mc McCarthy 1990, also found that even though virtually all men in their sample knew of at least one method of contraception, they were less knowledgeable about where to obtain contraceptives. They also thought that women should take responsibility for using contraception, but that men should control the decision making.
Available studies shows that in many developing countries, male often dominates in making important decisions in the family, including those concerned with reproduction, family size, and contraceptive use. Men are also recognized to be responsible for the large proportion of ill reproductive wealth suffered by their female partners. Men involvement helps not only in accepting a contraceptive but also in its effective use and reproductive goals suggested that the couple has an egalitarian relationship. Studies have shown that couples who discuss the number of children they desire or the use of family planning are more likely to use a contraceptive and achieve the reproductive goals than those who do not.
In Nigeria, unfortunately, data on the knowledge and use of modern contraception among men participation in reproductive health are generally scanty, and the existing studies are rather similar in focus and limited in scope. While Oni and McCarthy 1990, assessed the baseline level of knowledge, attitude and practice of adult males in Ilorin, Nigeria.
Oyediran etal; 1995 examined the variables that determined ever-married men’s level of contraceptive knowledge and use in Imo and Ondo states.
In today’s age, when couples are busy with their respective careers age, when couple are busy with their respectively in careers, many are opting for smaller family or sometimes no children at all. There is also a high cost of living challenge to the couples. For couple who want to stop after having one or two children, there are variety of family planning methods, couple can opt for natural methods and artificial methods of family planning.
More over, many of these family planning methods are concentrated on women than men. This means women are much accessible to the variety of method of family planning than men. For instance, method like, emergency pills, intrauterine device (IUD), sterilization by tubectomy or tubaligation and abstinence are used by women, while methods like, abstinence, withdrawal, condoms and sterilization by vasectomy are for men. From the above, we can observe that there are more methods of family planning for women than men. Therefore, this makes the researcher to look into.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It was found out that men did not see the issue of family planning as being a concern to them, they think it is a burden that should be borne by women. Many of the men were of the opinion that women are adults who should know how to take care of themselves.
The much needed support need by women in the use of contraceptive and other means of family planning are not forth-coming from men. This matter has generated lot of controversies and often resulted to problems among couples. The uncaring attitude of men towards family planning has endangered many women.
The researcher is of the opinion that both the men and the women should be the major stakeholders and should not be left in the hands of women alone.
It is for this reason that the researcher thought that this matter should be looked into so that men should not treat women as lone ranger on the issue of family planning.
This study therefore intended to correct the bad attitude of men towards family planning.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study aimed at examining the attitude of men towards family planning and to achieve the stated aim, the following objectives will be examined:
To determine the attitude of men toward family planning
To examine whether their religion influence their attitude towards family planning.
To examine whether their attitude is influenced by the economic situation.
To check whether their level of education influence their attitude towards family planning.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is very significant in the following ways:
It will go a long way to reveal the attitude of men towards family planning.
It will also contribute to make men more aware of the need for family planning.
It will educate men on how important this family planning is.
It could be essential for the youth who are preparing to marry to limit their birth rate in order to escape over population in their different homes.
It could also educate men who are less educated with the advantages of family planning.
The researcher intended to check the following questions
Are men aware of the existence of family planning?
Do men support the practice of family planning?
Does the religions support family planning?
What are the various factors militating against the effectiveness of family planning?
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is limited to Ogbomoso North Local Government, Oyo State in Nigeria and men from different families, different areas and different religion were chosen for the study with the use of random sampling technique.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Geometric Increase:- This means a very high rate of increase something (population).
Arithmetic Rate:- An increase in a slight rate.
Population:- This means to the total number of people living in a particular region at a given period of time.
Standard of Living:- This means the extent to which individuals of families can satisfy their wants.
Family Planning:- This is the process of controlling the number of children one has through contraceptives.
Contraceptive:- This is the practice of preventing women from getting pregnant.
Demographic:- This means the statistical study of human population.
Artificial Method:- This means the man-made method of family planning or improvised method.
Condom:- A rubber sheath worn on the penis during sex to prevent infection or unwanted pregnancy.
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